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Arthur Schopenhauer traveled in childhood throughout Europe and lived for a time in Goethe's Weimar, where his mother had established a salon that attracted many of Europe's leading intellectuals. As a young man, Schopenhauer studied at the University of Gottingen and in Berlin, where he attended the lectures of Fichte and Schleiermacher. Schopenhauer's first work was The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813), followed by a treatise on the physiology of perception, On Vision and Colors (1816). When Schopenhauer wrote his principal work, The World as Will and Idea (1819), he was confident that it was a work of great importance that would soon win him fame, but in this he was badly disappointed. In 1819 he arranged to hold a series of philosophical lectures at the same time as those of the newly arrived professor Hegel, whom Schopenhauer despised (calling him, among other creative epithets, an "intellectual Caliban"). This move resulted only in further humiliation for Schopenhauer, since no one showed up to hear him. Schopenhauer continued to be frustrated in repeated attempts to achieve recognition. In 1839 and 1840 he submitted essays on freedom of the will and the foundation of morality to competitions sponsored by the Royal Danish Academy but he won no prize, even when his essay was the only entry in the competition. In 1844 he published a second volume of The World as Will and Idea, containing developments and commentaries on the first. Around 1850, toward the end of his life, Schopenhauer's philosophy began to receive belated recognition, and he died in the confidence that his long-awaited and deserved fame had finally come. Schopenhauer's philosophy exercised considerable influence in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, not only among academic philosophers but even more among artists and literati. This may be in part because, unlike his German idealist contemporaries, Schopenhauer is a lucid and even witty writer, whose style consciously owes more to Hume than to Kant. Schopenhauer's philosophy is founded on the idea that reality is Will--a single, insatiable, objectless striving that manifests itself in the world of appearance as a vast multiplicity of phenomena, engaged in an endless and painful struggle with one another. He saw the same vision in the texts of Indian religions---Vedanta and Buddhism---which he regarded as vastly superior to Western monotheism. Schopenhauer's theory of the empirical world is an idealism, in which the doctrines of Kant are identified with those of Berkeley. In aesthetic enjoyment Schopenhauer saw a form of knowledge that is higher than ordinary empirical knowledge because it is a disinterested contemplation of the forms or essences of things, rather than a cognition of causal connections between particulars driven by the will's interest in control and domination. True salvation, however, lies in an intuitive insight into the evil of willing, which in its highest manifestations is capable of completely extinguishing the will in a state of nirvana. In his perceptive development of the psychological consequences of his theory, Schopenhauer gives particular emphasis to the way in which our knowledge and behavior are insidiously manipulated by our unconscious volition; this stress, plus the central role he gives to sexuality in his theory of the will, contains much that is found later in Freud (who acknowledged that Schopenhauer had anticipated his theory of repression). Schopenhauer's main influence on twentieth-century philosophy, however, was mediated by Nietzsche, whose theory of the will to power added a poignant twist by committing itself to the affirmation of the will while still conceiving it in essentially the same way---insatiable, painful, predatory, deceptive, and subversive of rational thought---which it had been in Schopenhauer's metaphysical pessimism. (Bowker Author Biography)
— biography from Essays and Aphorisms
… (més)
Essays and Aphorisms 1,162 exemplars, 9 ressenyes
The Art of Always Being Right 1,135 exemplars, 17 ressenyes
The world as will and representation 743 exemplars, 10 ressenyes
The Wisdom of Life 497 exemplars, 4 ressenyes
On The Suffering of the World 451 exemplars, 3 ressenyes
Essay on the Freedom of the Will 262 exemplars, 4 ressenyes
On the Basis of Morality 220 exemplars, 3 ressenyes
L'arte di insultare 139 exemplars, 2 ressenyes
The Horrors and Absurdities of Religion 112 exemplars, 2 ressenyes
On Women 90 exemplars, 1 ressenya
The Art of Literature 84 exemplars, 2 ressenyes
Essays of Schopenhauer 76 exemplars, 2 ressenyes
El amor, las mujeres y la muerte 74 exemplars, 2 ressenyes
The art of knowing yourself 73 exemplars, 1 ressenya
On the Will in Nature 66 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Complete Essays of Schopenhauer 65 exemplars, 1 ressenya
De wereld een hel 58 exemplars
Kleinere Schriften 36 exemplars
De wereld deugt niet 32 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Aşkın Metafiziği 32 exemplars, 2 ressenyes
Schopenhauer 25 exemplars
Kuolema ja kuolematon 22 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Über das Mitleid 20 exemplars
Selections 18 exemplars
Journal de voyage 14 exemplars
Esthétique et métaphysique 13 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Du néant de la vie 12 exemplars
Hayatin Anlami 12 exemplars
[Schopenhauer] 12 exemplars
Sämmtliche Werke 11 exemplars
Schopenhauer 10 exemplars
Parábolas, aforismos y comparaciones 10 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Il mio Oriente 9 exemplars
Gesammelte Werke 9 exemplars
L'arte di capire le donne 9 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Colloqui 8 exemplars
Memoria sulle scienze occulte 7 exemplars, 1 ressenya
O religii 6 exemplars
ARTE DE PENSAR, EL 5 exemplars
Schopenhauer 5 exemplars
Din Uzerine 4 exemplars
Come pensare da se 4 exemplars
Schopenhauer 4 exemplars
Pandectae 3 exemplars
Voyage à Bordeaux 3 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Libertad, La 3 exemplars
Das Gesamtwerk 3 exemplars
Bilim ve Bilgelik 3 exemplars
Sur la religion 3 exemplars
Bilmek ve Istemek 3 exemplars
Morale e religione 3 exemplars
Levenswijsheid 3 exemplars
Akil Zayifligi 2 exemplars
Hakli Cikma Sanati 2 exemplars
A Arte de Ser Feliz 2 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Ölümün anlamı 2 exemplars
Du génie 2 exemplars
Werke in 5 Bänden 2 exemplars
Kunstidest 2 exemplars
La Libertad 2 exemplars
Aforismos Livro 1 1 exemplars
SCHOPENHAUER 1 exemplars
Eudemonologia 1 exemplars
El Ocultismo 1 exemplars
Instinto Sexual 1 exemplars
Eudemonologia 1 exemplars
Världsreflexer II 1 exemplars
Sämtliche Werke 1 exemplars
Lettres (Tome 1) 1 exemplars
Lettres (Tome 2) 1 exemplars
O kráse a umení 1 exemplars
Fundamentele Moralei 1 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Entretiens 1 exemplars
Werke : in 1 Bd. 1 exemplars
Merhamet 1 exemplars
Keshilla per jeten 1 exemplars
Arti i te jetuarit 1 exemplars
Un abécédaire 1 exemplars
Sul genio 1 exemplars
Livsvisdom 1 exemplars
Pensieri diversi 1 exemplars
Ljubov' 1 exemplars
Estetica e morale 1 exemplars
Breviario 1 exemplars
Anni e errori 1 exemplars
Taccuino italiano 1 exemplars
Neue Paralipomena 1 exemplars
Att tänka själv 1 exemplars
Shopenhauer 1 exemplars
Selected Essays 1 exemplars
Schopenhauer 1 exemplars
The Art of Worldly Wisdom (Traductor, algunes edicions) 1,694 exemplars, 20 ressenyes
The European Philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche (Col·laborador) 397 exemplars, 3 ressenyes
Critical Theory Since Plato (Col·laborador, algunes edicions) 377 exemplars, 1 ressenya
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (Autor, algunes edicions) 163 exemplars
Man and Spirit: The Speculative Philosophers (Col·laborador) 162 exemplars, 1 ressenya
German Essays on Music (Col·laborador) 18 exemplars
Schopenhauer (Col·laborador) 1 exemplars

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