Measles, Vaccination, Choice, Public Health Options

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Measles, Vaccination, Choice, Public Health Options

1margd
maig 26, 2019, 7:41am

#144 on previous thread (measles' years long erasure of immune system--one reason why vaccination is even more beneficial when/where more infectious agents are floating around)--more:

Measles erases the immune system’s memory
Beyond the rash, the infection makes it harder for the body to remember and attack other invaders
Laura Sanders | May 21, 2019

...Measles silently wipes clean the immune system’s memory of past infections. In this way, the virus can cast a long and dangerous shadow for months, or even years, scientists are finding. The resulting “immune amnesia” leaves people vulnerable to other viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia, ear infections and diarrhea.

...The virus quickly replicates inside the cells, then spreads to places packed with other immune cells — bone marrow, thymus, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes. “The virus has an enormously strong predilection to infect cells of the immune system,” says Bert Rima, an infectious disease researcher at Queen’s University Belfast in Northern Ireland...

...In 2013, (virologist Rik de Swart of Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands) and colleagues saw an opportunity to study the immune effects of the virus in children who are part of an insular community of Orthodox Protestants in the Netherlands, called the Dutch Bible Belt. Parents there refuse vaccinations, a decision that ushers in regular bouts of measles. The community’s last measles outbreak ended in 2000; it was just a matter of time before the virus took hold again.

The researchers...(took) blood samples from healthy, unvaccinated children to study their immune cells. Then, the researchers waited for an outbreak, so they could test the kids again after an infection...de Swart and colleagues collected before and after samples from 77 children who contracted measles.

“The virus preferentially infects cells in the immune system that carry the memory of previously experienced infections,” de Swart says. Called memory B and T cells, these cellular protectors normally remember threats the body has already neutralized, allowing the immune system to spring into action quickly if those threats return. After a measles infection, the numbers of some types of these memory cells dropped, creating an immune amnesia, the researchers reported in 2018 in Nature Communications.

The immune system might take months, or even years, to bounce back from this memory loss. Researchers including de Swart and (infectious disease epidemiologist and pathologist Michael Mina of Harvard University) compared health records of U.K. children from 1990 to 2014. For up to five years after their bout of measles, children who had previously had the virus experienced more diagnosed infections than children who hadn’t. Children who'd had measles were 15 to 24 percent more likely to receive a prescription for an infection than children who never had measles, the researchers reported in 2018 in BMJ Open.

Mina and colleagues found similar results for deaths from non-measles infections in children in England, Wales, the United States and Denmark, before and after the introduction of the measles vaccine. When measles was rampant, children were more likely to die from other infections.

When the researchers looked out several years after the measles, the connection between measles and non-measles deaths grew stronger (SN: 5/30/15, p. 10). “Every little blip in the mortality data could be explained by the measles incidence data over the previous 30 months,” Mina says. It’s not clear how the immune system eventually recovers its memories. With new methods that can measure these cellular memories, Mina and others hope to understand that rebuilding process...

Citations

Brigitta M. Laksono et al. Measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis. Viruses. July, 2016. doi: 10.3390/v8080210

B.M. Laksono et al. Studies into the mechanism of measles-associated immune suppression during a measles outbreak in the Netherlands. Nature Communications. Vol. 9, November 23, 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07515-0

K. Gadroen et al. Impact and longevity of measles-associated immune suppression: a matched cohort study using data from the THIN general practice database in the UK. BMJ Open. Vol. 8, November 8, 2018. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2017-021465

I.V. Allen et al. Macrophages and dendritic cells are the predominant cells infected in measles in humans. mSphere. Vol. 3, May/June, 2018. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00570-17

M.J. Mina et al. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality. Science. Vol. 348, May 8, 2015. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3662

...

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/measles-immune-system-memory-infection

2margd
maig 26, 2019, 7:41am

#144 on previous thread (measles' years long erasure of immune system--one reason why vaccination is even more beneficial when/where more infectious agents are floating around)--more:

Measles erases the immune system’s memory
Beyond the rash, the infection makes it harder for the body to remember and attack other invaders
Laura Sanders | May 21, 2019

...Measles silently wipes clean the immune system’s memory of past infections. In this way, the virus can cast a long and dangerous shadow for months, or even years, scientists are finding. The resulting “immune amnesia” leaves people vulnerable to other viruses and bacteria that cause pneumonia, ear infections and diarrhea.

...The virus quickly replicates inside the cells, then spreads to places packed with other immune cells — bone marrow, thymus, spleen, tonsils and lymph nodes. “The virus has an enormously strong predilection to infect cells of the immune system,” says Bert Rima, an infectious disease researcher at Queen’s University Belfast in Northern Ireland...

...In 2013, (virologist Rik de Swart of Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands) and colleagues saw an opportunity to study the immune effects of the virus in children who are part of an insular community of Orthodox Protestants in the Netherlands, called the Dutch Bible Belt. Parents there refuse vaccinations, a decision that ushers in regular bouts of measles. The community’s last measles outbreak ended in 2000; it was just a matter of time before the virus took hold again.

The researchers...(took) blood samples from healthy, unvaccinated children to study their immune cells. Then, the researchers waited for an outbreak, so they could test the kids again after an infection...de Swart and colleagues collected before and after samples from 77 children who contracted measles.

“The virus preferentially infects cells in the immune system that carry the memory of previously experienced infections,” de Swart says. Called memory B and T cells, these cellular protectors normally remember threats the body has already neutralized, allowing the immune system to spring into action quickly if those threats return. After a measles infection, the numbers of some types of these memory cells dropped, creating an immune amnesia, the researchers reported in 2018 in Nature Communications.

The immune system might take months, or even years, to bounce back from this memory loss. Researchers including de Swart and (infectious disease epidemiologist and pathologist Michael Mina of Harvard University) compared health records of U.K. children from 1990 to 2014. For up to five years after their bout of measles, children who had previously had the virus experienced more diagnosed infections than children who hadn’t. Children who'd had measles were 15 to 24 percent more likely to receive a prescription for an infection than children who never had measles, the researchers reported in 2018 in BMJ Open.

Mina and colleagues found similar results for deaths from non-measles infections in children in England, Wales, the United States and Denmark, before and after the introduction of the measles vaccine. When measles was rampant, children were more likely to die from other infections.

When the researchers looked out several years after the measles, the connection between measles and non-measles deaths grew stronger (SN: 5/30/15, p. 10). “Every little blip in the mortality data could be explained by the measles incidence data over the previous 30 months,” Mina says. It’s not clear how the immune system eventually recovers its memories. With new methods that can measure these cellular memories, Mina and others hope to understand that rebuilding process...

Citations

Brigitta M. Laksono et al. Measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis. Viruses. July, 2016. doi: 10.3390/v8080210

B.M. Laksono et al. Studies into the mechanism of measles-associated immune suppression during a measles outbreak in the Netherlands. Nature Communications. Vol. 9, November 23, 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07515-0

K. Gadroen et al. Impact and longevity of measles-associated immune suppression: a matched cohort study using data from the THIN general practice database in the UK. BMJ Open. Vol. 8, November 8, 2018. doi:10.1136/ bmjopen-2017-021465

I.V. Allen et al. Macrophages and dendritic cells are the predominant cells infected in measles in humans. mSphere. Vol. 3, May/June, 2018. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00570-17

M.J. Mina et al. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality. Science. Vol. 348, May 8, 2015. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3662

...

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/measles-immune-system-memory-infection

3margd
maig 30, 2019, 7:21am

Though less deadly than Ebola, measles is far more infectious--so herd immunity requires higher vaccination rate, 92-95% v 42-63% vaccination rate for Ebola. (However, because current vaccines are not 100 percent effective against Ebola’s various strains, some researchers argue that the vaccination threshold may actually be somewhat higher.)

One number can help explain why measles is so contagious
Helen Thompson | May 28, 2019

A disease’s R0 is the average number of people a person can infect in an unvaccinated population...

https://www.sciencenews.org/article/one-number-can-help-explain-why-measles-so-c...

4John5918
Editat: juny 21, 2019, 3:39pm

‘My mum didn’t vaccinate me – this is what happened next’ (BBC)

Meredith's mother was suspicious about vaccines and would never let her have them as a child. For a while it didn't seem to matter, but eventually Meredith (not her real name) starting coming down with some frightening illnesses...

Vaccines: Low trust in vaccination 'a global crisis' (BBC)

Public mistrust of vaccines means the world is taking a step backwards in the fight against deadly yet preventable infectious diseases, warn experts...

Polie: The Final Battle (BBC)

a mass vaccination at a village school in the suburbs of Peshawar had ended in violence and arson.

The headmaster of the school, in Mashokhel village, had previously refused to allow the polio vaccine. This time he had bowed to government pressure and the inoculations had gone ahead. But shortly afterwards he rang parents to tell them their children were fainting and vomiting.

Dozens of students from the school were taken to hospital. All were found to have no symptoms and were discharged. But it was too late to contain the panic, which had spread quickly via social media.

Furious parents gathered outside a local government health facility, broke down its boundary wall with hammers and sticks, kicked down the front gate, and barged inside to burn it down. All of this was shown live on local TV, which sparked even greater alarm in Peshawar...


Survey shows crisis of confidence in vaccines in parts of Europe (Guardian)

Around the globe, 84% of people acknowledge that vaccines are effective and 92% say their child has received a vaccine. But in spite of good healthcare and education systems, in parts of Europe there is low trust in vaccines. France has the highest levels of distrust, at 33%...

Vaccinations were a major issue in the 2018 elections (in Italy) (BBC)

Scientists say, repeatedly, that vaccines have never been safer - or more effective. So why do some people still refuse to trust them?

Outbreaks of diseases are happening in countries where they haven't been seen for decades. And the number of people choosing not to vaccinate their children seems to be on the rise. It's one of the top ten global health risks this year, according to the WHO.

BBC Population Reporter Stephanie Hegarty went to Italy, where vaccines have become a big issue in recent years, to explore a debate that's riddled with misinformation and fake news.

5John5918
juny 22, 2019, 2:40am

The medical student who died of measles (BBC)

Until recently health authorities thought they had almost eliminated measles from Europe. But now the potentially deadly illness is on the rise because of a dramatic fall in vaccination rates. Worst hit is Ukraine, now suffering the one of the worst measles epidemics in the world, with more than 100,000 cases since 2017...

6John5918
jul. 5, 2019, 11:31am

Measles in South Sudan calls for emergency response (Relief Web)

“It doesn’t have to be this way; measles is entirely preventable... “The children of this country deserve better and should have the opportunity to be protected”...

Because of crisis in South Sudan, it has not been possible to implement routine immunisations on large scale. James has seen first-hand how measles spreads quickly.

“Measles always starts in the far areas where people don’t always know about this disease,” said James. “They are a long way from the hospital and many children become infected. For many years people have been on the move and have missed receiving vaccinations"...

7John5918
jul. 11, 2019, 3:22pm

Cases of measles in Africa rise by 700 percent: UN body (Al Jazeera)

World Health Organization says measles cases jump by 700 percent in parts of Africa as access to vaccines difficult

8margd
Editat: ag. 18, 2019, 7:36am

With school about to commence,

NY Parents Ask Judge to Allow Religious Exemption to Vaccine Law
Posted Aug. 14, 2019, 5:26 AM Updated Aug. 14, 2019, 2:32 PM

New state law says only vaccinated children can attend schools
Parents hope for ruling before start of classes

Lawyers for a group of parents who don’t want their children vaccinated told a state judge in New York Aug. 14 that their First Amendment rights will be violated if they are forced to do so.

More than 1,000 parents and children, dressed in white for solidarity, flooded a courthouse in Albany, hoping Justice Denise A. Hartman will block a law passed in June or at least issue a preliminary injunction. The measure bars unvaccinated minors from school or day care unless they have a medical condition that justifies not getting the vaccine.

The law eliminated exemptions to vaccination requirements...

https://news.bloomberglaw.com/pharma-and-life-sciences/ny-parents-ask-judge-to-a...

__________________________________________________​

The only religious group I was aware of that might oppose vaccination is the Amish with their general rejection of modern innovation, but I believe some Amish, at least, accept technology for good reason (like stopping an epidemic).

FYI, overview below discusses other religions' possible hesitation to vaccinate:

Gordana Pelčić et al. 2016. Religious exception for vaccination or religious excuses for avoiding vaccination. Croat Med J. 2016 Oct; 57(5): 516–521.
doi: 10.3325/cmj.2016.57.516 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5141457/

9John5918
Editat: ag. 20, 2019, 12:23am

Johnson urges social media firms to block anti-vaccine messages (Guardian)

Boris Johnson will call on social media companies to do more to stop anti-vaccination messages spreading online as he visits a hospital in the south-west of England...

Edited to add:

MMR vaccine: one in seven five-year-olds in England may not be immunised (Guardian)

Public Health England issues warning as UK loses measles-free status and PM pledges action on social media firms

10John5918
ag. 22, 2019, 12:36am

'Major milestone': Africa on brink of eliminating polio (Guardian)

Nigeria marks three years without a wild polio case, meaning Africa could be declared free of the disease in 2020

The result of concerted vaccination campaigns in very difficult circumstances over many years.

11margd
ag. 22, 2019, 7:26am

>10 John5918: Africa eliminating polio and successful campaigns against acid rain and ozone are stories that feed my flicker of hope that we'll meet the challenge of climate change.

12John5918
set. 9, 2019, 12:06am

Stop return of measles by making MMR jab compulsory, say GPs (Guardian)

The MMR jab should be compulsory for children before they are allowed to start primary school to stop the resurgence of measles and mumps, leading GPs are demanding...

They want school entry procedures toughened so that the only exceptions made to the new rule would be for children whose parents have registered a conscientious objection to the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine or those whose health means they cannot have it...

13John5918
set. 9, 2019, 12:16am

And a different disease: Defeat malaria in a generation - here's how (BBC)

The world could be free of malaria - one of the oldest and deadliest diseases to affect humanity - within a generation, a major report says.

Each year there are still more than 200 million cases of the disease, which mostly kills young children.

The report says eradicating malaria is no longer a distant dream, but wiping out the parasite will probably need an extra $2bn (£1.6bn) of annual funding...


I have a personal interest in this one having had malaria many times and nearly died of it on one occasion.

14margd
oct. 4, 2019, 11:20am

Because other species host Lyme pathogen, herd immunity isn't possible, so won't matter whether or not others are vaccinated.
A big downside is the number of shots individuals will need.

Lyme Vaccines Show New Promise, and Face Old Challenges
Cassandra Willyard | 10.02.2019

The first human Lyme vaccine was pulled off the market nearly twenty years ago. A new effort faces lingering suspicions.

...Valneva is conducting its phase II clinical trial in the U.S. to determine the final dose and vaccination schedule. The company should have the initial data by the middle of 2020. The next step will be to launch two efficacy trials including about 8,000 people each, one in Europe and one in the U.S. The company could seek regulatory approval in about five years.

...Demand for a Lyme vaccine should be greater than ever before. When LYMErix first hit the market in 1998, the number of reported cases was about 17,000. By 2017, that number had climbed to roughly 30,000 confirmed cases. And the CDC estimates that far more — some 300,000 people — are actually diagnosed each year.

...Convincing the public to get immunized could also prove challenging. Valneva has yet to determine the number of vaccine doses, and when those doses must be administered. But (Thomas Lingelbach, Valneva’s CEO) anticipates people will need three shots over the first two to six months, a booster after a year, and then additional boosters perhaps every three years....

https://undark.org/article/new-landscape-lyme-vaccines/

15John5918
oct. 14, 2019, 6:42am

School gates 'breeding ground' for vaccine myths, says NHS chief (Guardian)

School gates can be a “breeding ground for harmful myths” about vaccines, the chief executive of NHS England has said, as he called for a zero-tolerance approach to misinformation about their alleged dangers.

Simon Stevens said it was often the parents who did their best to find out more about the impact and effect of vaccines on their children who were liable to be deceived by “fake news”.

“In this way the school gates themselves can be a breeding ground for harmful myths to catch on, spread and ultimately infect parents’ judgment”...

“That parents’ efforts and anxiety to make the right decision for their children are jeopardised by wilful misinformation is unacceptable”...

16John5918
oct. 14, 2019, 6:58am

Health Secretary Matt Hancock wrong on compulsory child vaccinations - top doctor (BBC)

Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health expert Dr David Elliman said it could be counter-productive and make people more suspicious.

He joined others in calling for vaccines to be offered in places such as supermarkets and music festivals...

He said {compulsory vaccination} risked breaking the trust that exists between health professionals and the public and creating a row about civil liberties.

He also pointed out that it would do nothing to encourage those who have already missed vaccinations to take part in catch-up programmes, citing the need to reach out to people in their 20s who did not have the MMR vaccine at the height of the scare two decades ago.

Instead, he wants the government, which is drawing up a new vaccinations strategy, to focus on accessibility, saying he would like to see pop-up clinics being held at music festivals to reach out to those who missed out on the MMR jab at the turn of the century when uptake rates were even lower than they are now.

Prof Helen Bedford, of University College London, agreed accessibility was key.

"People live busy lives so if we can make it easier for them to get vaccinated I think we would see an increase in uptake."

She said clinics could be held in children's centres and even supermarkets, but warned it would require investment in vaccination teams and nurses to give the jabs...

17margd
oct. 14, 2019, 7:52am

>15 John5918: I think, too, wellness centers like chiropractors? People who may have been failed by regular medicines tend to head there and reinforce one another?

18John5918
oct. 14, 2019, 8:23am

Two unborn babies die in New Zealand after mothers contracted measles (Guardian)

Health officials say a total of five pregnant women had become infected with the illness

20margd
oct. 29, 2019, 11:17am

'Game changing' tuberculosis vaccine a step closer
Soutik Biswas | 29 October 2019

A vaccine which could "revolutionise" tuberculosis treatment has been unveiled by researchers.

It is hoped the vaccine will provide long-term protection against the disease, which kills 1.5 million people around the world each year.

The highly contagious disease is caused by bacteria, and the current vaccine, the BCG jab, is not very effective.

However, while initial trials have proved successful, the vaccine is still a few years away from being licensed.

The team of researchers, who come from all over the world, revealed the vaccine, which is made up of proteins from bacteria which trigger an immune response, during a global summit on lung health in the southern Indian city of Hyderabad on Tuesday.

It has already cleared a critical phase of clinical trials and been tested on more than 3,500 adults in TB endemic regions of South Africa, Kenya and Zambia, researchers said.

David Lewinsohn, a TB expert, told the BBC the potential vaccine was a "real game changer". "What is really remarkable is that it was effective in adults who were already infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is the causative agent of TB...As most people who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis do not get TB, we have believed that infection confers some degree of protection. As a result it is really exciting that a vaccine has been shown to improve on this natural immunity."...

Tuberculosis facts

TB is a bacterial infection spread through inhaling tiny droplets from the coughs or sneezes of an infected person
It mainly affects the lungs, but it can affect any part of the body, including the tummy (abdomen) glands, bones and nervous system
The most common symptoms of TB are a persistent cough for more than three weeks, unexplained weight loss, fever and night sweats.
TB is difficult to catch and you need to spend many hours in close contact with a person with infectious TB to be at risk of infection
TB can be fatal if left untreated - but can be cured if it's treated with the right antibiotics over a course of six months
The BCG vaccine offers protection against TB, and is recommended for babies, children and adults under the age of 35 who are at risk of catching TB
At-risk groups include: children living in areas with high rates of TB and people with close family members from countries with high TB rates

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-50205762

21John5918
Editat: oct. 31, 2019, 8:44am

Release of Vaxxed sequel prompts fears dangerous propaganda will spread again (Guardian)

Anti-vaccination film to premiere in theatres as several states have been battling against localised outbreaks of measles

22margd
Editat: nov. 1, 2019, 8:34am

Before the measles vaccine was introduced in the 1960s, an estimated 50% of childhood deaths (in high-income England and Wales, the United States, and Denmark) may have been associated with infections that kids caught after surviving a bout of measles (Mina et al. 2015).

In new study, measles caused elimination of 11 to 73% of the antibody repertoire across 77 unvaccinated individuals in the Netherlands. (Mina et al. 2019)

Measles Wipes Your Immune System's 'Memory,' So It Can't Fight Other Infections
Nicoletta Lanese | 10/31/2019

Two new studies detail how the measles virus causes "immune amnesia."

The notorious measles virus not only makes people sick, it also sneaks inside important immune cells in the body and wipes their "memories," new research suggests.

Once infected, the amnesic immune system no longer recognizes the harmful pathogens that it has fought off in the past. This means measles survivors can remain susceptible to dangerous diseases — such as the flu and pneumonia — for years to come, despite having weathered their initial illness.

...before the measles vaccine was introduced in the 1960s, an estimated 50% of childhood deaths (in high-income England and Wales, the United States, and Denmark ) may have been associated with infections that kids caught after surviving a bout of measles (Mina et al. 2015. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality. Science 8; 348(6235): 694–699. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3662
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823017/ )

...One thing that is clear here is that the measles vaccine is a fantastic thing," Wesemann said. The vaccine equips the body with an arsenal of anti-measles antibodies, just as the virus itself would, he said. But unlike infection, inoculation does not blunt the body's ability to build antibodies against other pathogens — the Science study shows this incredible feat in action. "You get all of the good and none of the bad with the vaccine," Wesemann said.

In light of the recent measles outbreaks in the U.S., Schaffner said that research like this highlights the integral role of the measles vaccine to public health.

"Measles should not be underestimated," Schaffner said. "It is clearly a disease worth preventing."

https://www.livescience.com/measles-wipes-immune-memory.html

--------------------------------------------------​

Michael J. Mina et al. 2019. Measles virus infection diminishes preexisting antibodies that offer protection from other pathogens. Vol. 366, Issue 6465, pp. 599-606
DOI: 10.1126/science.aay6485 (Read entire article at https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6465/599 )

The toll of measles on the immune system
Many of the deaths attributable to measles virus are caused by secondary infections because the virus infects and functionally impairs immune cells. Whether measles infection causes long-term damage to immune memory has been unclear. This question has become increasingly important given the resurgence in measles epidemics worldwide. Using a blood test called VirScan, Mina et al. comprehensively analyzed the antibody repertoire in children before and after natural infection with measles virus as well as in children before and after measles vaccination. They found that measles infection can greatly diminish previously acquired immune memory, potentially leaving individuals at risk for infection by other pathogens. These adverse effects on the immune system were not seen in vaccinated children. (Science, this issue p. 599)

Abstract
Measles virus is directly responsible for more than 100,000 deaths yearly. Epidemiological studies have associated measles with increased morbidity and mortality for years after infection, but the reasons why are poorly understood. Measles virus infects immune cells, causing acute immune suppression. To identify and quantify long-term effects of measles on the immune system, we used VirScan, an assay that tracks antibodies to thousands of pathogen epitopes in blood. We studied 77 unvaccinated children before and 2 months after natural measles virus infection. Measles caused elimination of 11 to 73% of the antibody repertoire across individuals. Recovery of antibodies was detected after natural reexposure to pathogens. Notably, these immune system effects were not observed in infants vaccinated against MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella), but were confirmed in measles-infected macaques. The reduction in humoral* immune memory after measles infection generates potential vulnerability to future infections, underscoring the need for widespread vaccination.

...Measuring the consequences of measles on immune memory...

Measles modulates the diversity of the antibody repertoire and causes loss of preexisting antibodies...

Measles decreases the strength of epitope recognition...

Measles disrupts recognition of pathogen epitopes across the cohort...

The MMR vaccine does not impair the immune repertoire...

Reconstruction of the antibody repertoire with high-transmission pathogens is spatially clustered...

Reconstruction of the antibody repertoire through reexposure after measles carries risks...

Experimental MV infection confirms a decrease in previously acquired immune memory...

Cumulative evidence supports the establishment of an immune amnesia state after measles...

* humoral--relating to the body fluids, especially with regard to immune responses involving antibodies in body fluids as distinct from cells.

--------------------------------------------------​

margd: I'll update when link activated to another paper just published in Science Immunology.

24John5918
nov. 14, 2019, 7:16am

Majority of anti-vaxx ads on Facebook are funded by just two organizations (Guardian)

Study finds Robert F Kennedy Jr’s World Mercury Project and Larry Cook’s Stop Mandatory Vaccinations bought 54% of ads

25John5918
nov. 17, 2019, 11:11pm

Samoa declares state of emergency over deadly measles epidemic (Guardian)

At least six deaths have been linked to the outbreak, in a nation where vaccination rates are alarmingly low

26John5918
nov. 21, 2019, 12:49pm

DR Congo measles: Nearly 5,000 dead in major outbreak (BBC)

Measles has killed nearly 5,000 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2019, authorities said, after the disease spread to all the provinces in the country.

Close to a quarter of a million people have been infected this year alone...

27John5918
nov. 23, 2019, 11:48pm

Samoa measles epidemic kills 20 (Guardian)

Children under five account for all but one of the deaths as suspected cases double to 1,644

28John5918
nov. 29, 2019, 11:15pm

'There are no words': Samoa buries its children as measles outbreak worsens (Guardian)

In six weeks, a measles outbreak has infected 3,000 people out of a population of 200,000, killing 42, mostly children

29John5918
Editat: des. 4, 2019, 7:55am

Samoa measles: Unvaccinated families told to hang red flag on door (BBC)

Families that have not been vaccinated against measles in the Pacific nation of Samoa have been asked to hang a red flag outside their homes to help fight a deadly outbreak of the disease. The flags will assist medical teams travelling door to door inoculating residents...

Sixty people have died so far, many of whom were children under five. Samoa declared a state of emergency in November to combat the outbreak and vaccinations are now compulsory...

30John5918
des. 5, 2019, 1:55am

Typhoid vaccine 'works fantastically well' (BBC)

A new typhoid vaccine works "fantastically well" and is being used to help stop an almost untreatable strain of the infection, doctors say. Cases of the bacterial disease fell by more than 80% in trials, published in the New England Journal of Medicine. Experts said the vaccine was a game-changer and would reduce the "terrible toll wrought by typhoid". Nine million children are being immunised in Pakistan, where typhoid is now extremely resistant to antibiotics...

I got typhoid last month despite being vaccinated with the old vaccine. Must try and get a jab of this new one!

31John5918
des. 5, 2019, 11:10pm

142,000 died from measles last year, WHO estimates (Guardian)

Number of cases reported so far this year is three times higher than at same stage in 2018

32John5918
Editat: des. 17, 2019, 11:12pm

'These babies should not have died': How the measles outbreak took hold in Samoa (Guardian)

Samoa’s vaccination rate was too low to protect its people when measles arrived, probably brought by a traveller from New Zealand, which has suffered its own measles outbreak over the last year.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends that in order to have immunity, there needs to be at least 95% coverage of people who have had two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Four years ago, roughly 85% of one-year-olds in Samoa were vaccinated, in 2017 that dropped to 60%.

The rate plummeted sharply after a scandal that rocked Samoa in July 2018, when two Samoan nurses administered MMR vaccines to babies who subsequently died. The problem was not with the vaccine, an investigation determined, but rather its administration, after it emerged that one of the nurses mixed the MMR vaccine powder with expired muscle relaxant anaesthetic instead of water. But the impact on public trust in vaccination was profound.

The Samoan government suspended the country’s vaccination programme for 10 months, despite advice from the WHO that the country immediately restart the programme. By 2018, only 31% of infants had been vaccinated.

“When you pause for 10 months that’s enough time for thousands of kids {without immunity} to accumulate”...

33John5918
gen. 7, 2020, 11:28pm

DR Congo measles: More than 6,000 dead in world's worst outbreak (BBC)

The number of people killed by a measles epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo has passed 6,000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has said. The WHO says the epidemic is the world's largest and fastest moving. Around 310,000 suspected measles cases have been reported since the start of 2019, the WHO says. The Congolese government and the WHO launched an emergency vaccination programme last September. More than 18 million children under five were vaccinated across the country in 2019, the WHO says. But poor infrastructure, attacks on health centres and a lack of access to routine healthcare have all hindered efforts to stop the spread of the disease...

34margd
gen. 14, 2020, 11:01am

You Are Unvaccinated and Got Sick. These Are Your Odds.
Comparing the dangerous effects of three diseases with the minimal side effects of their corresponding vaccines.
Peter J. Hotez | Jan. 9, 2020

...As a vaccine scientist, pediatrician and the parent of an adult daughter with autism, I meet regularly with pediatricians, nurses and worried parents. Parents want to do what’s best for their child, but too often they become the victims of anti-vaccine misinformation campaigns.

Medical professionals need to find a way to counter the anti-vaccine media empire by mounting a vigorous pro-vaccine advocacy response that rebuilds public trust...

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/09/opinion/vaccine-hesitancy.html

35John5918
feb. 5, 2020, 4:38am

South Sudan launches a nationwide campaign to protect 2.5 million children against measles (Relief Web)

The campaign is essential for children’s health in South Sudan, as the country is still battling an unprecedented measles outbreak with over 4 700 confirmed cases and 26 deaths since January 2019 to date. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect children against this very contagious disease...

“We need to boost the vaccination coverage to protect children against measles outbreaks”, said Dr Makur Matur Kariom, Undersecretary, Ministry of Health. “Unfortunately, in South Sudan routine vaccination coverage against measles remains low at only 59 per cent. That means many children in our country are not protected against the disease. Hence the importance of this vaccination campaign cannot be over emphasized”...

36John5918
feb. 7, 2020, 11:15pm

Advocates blame anti-vaxxers after four-year-old boy dies from flu (Guardan)

Colorado boy’s mother admitted in a Facebook post she refused to fill the doctor’s prescription for Tamiflu

37John5918
abr. 3, 2020, 2:21am

Couple who opposed council vaccinating their child lose appeal (Guardian)

A couple who tried to prevent the local authority from vaccinating their child, who is in care, have failed to overturn the decision by requiring courts to become routinely involved in such disputes.

The court of appeal has rejected the parents’ request to intervene in the case of their young infant, who was due to receive the usual sequence of childhood immunisations against diseases such as diphtheria, polio and whooping cough.

The claim, which predates the Covid-19 pandemic, comes at a time when there is hope that a vaccine will be found to halt future outbreaks...

38margd
abr. 11, 2020, 4:00am

David Frum @davidfrum | 4/10/2020
https://twitter.com/davidfrum/status/1248818178052034560
An important backstory to the hydroxychloroquine enthusiasm is the weird paranoid fears of virus vaccine research. Apparently, Bill Gates is researching vaccines in order to insert controlling microchips into our bodies...*

Bill Gates is the George Soros of the anti-vaxxers.

Ha ha, you say, that sounds like utter lunacy. As it is.
But it's slowly percolating from the anti-vax fringe into the conservative ecosystem (Newsmax, Washington Times, Fox News) -
as @mmfa details...mediamatters.org*

Newsmax especially is promoting deranged fantasies about virus vaccines.
Emerald Robinson is the Newsmax White House correspondent, frequently called upon by President Trump
Image ( https://twitter.com/davidfrum/status/1248819550336045058/photo/1 )

EG just this past April 8.
Quote Tweet
--------------------------------------------------​
Laura Ingraham @IngrahamAngle | 10:13 AM · Apr 8, 2020
At some point, the president is going to have to look at Drs. Fauci and Birx and say, we're opening on May 1.
Give me your best guidance on protocols, but we cannot deny our people their basic freedoms any longer.
https://twitter.com/IngrahamAngle/status/1247890349743198208
--------------------------------------------------​
Emerald Robinson @EmeraldRobinson · Apr 8
Today I asked President Trump when America was going to open again for business.
"Easter is a very important day..." he told me.
"I don't think we are going to be very far behind..."
--------------------------------------------------​

The fringe promotes hydroxychloroquine not only to cover for President's Trump's early failures -
not only because of its susceptibility to promises of miracle cures -
but as an alternative to the scientific vaccines it fears and abhors

Image (https://twitter.com/davidfrum/status/1248822134551560197/photo/1)
Isn't that baffling?
__________________________________________________​

* A Bill Gates coronavirus conspiracy theory spread on social media and then to a Fox News host
Alex Kaplan | 04/08/20

Conspiracy theorists, anti-vaxxers, white nationalists, and QAnon supporters spread the false claim online...

...The spread of the conspiracy theory comes as multiple other conspiracy theories about the coronavirus have circulated on social media, including others about Gates and the virus.

https://www.mediamatters.org/coronavirus-covid-19/bill-gates-coronavirus-conspir...

.
.
.
Putin is smiling, I bet.

39John5918
Editat: abr. 15, 2020, 2:06am

Measles resurgence fear amid coronavirus (BBC)

Measles outbreaks may occur as a result of the coronavirus pandemic, officials say, because some vaccination programmes are having to be delayed.

Unicef says 117 million children in 37 countries may not get immunised on time.

There have been several large outbreaks in countries across Europe where MMR vaccine uptake has been low.

The UK has already lost its measles-free status, because of rising cases of the potentially deadly infection...


Coronavirus derails measles vaccination across the globe (The New Humanitarian)

Illnesses from measles and other preventable diseases, like polio and cholera, are expected to rise...

40John5918
abr. 22, 2020, 1:28am

Coronavirus causing some anti-vaxxers to waver, experts say (Guardian)

While some are doubling down on their rejection of vaccines, the scale of the Covid-19 crisis is eroding resistance in others...

41John5918
abr. 25, 2020, 12:56am

Vaccines work at all ages, everywhere (World Health Organisation)

There’s no question that immunization is one of the greatest success stories in global health, saving millions of lives every year from vaccine-preventable diseases. Every year more than 116 million, or 86% of all infants born are vaccinated – a number than has been holding firm for a decade.

More than 20 life-threatening diseases can now be prevented by immunization, and new vaccines for major killers like diarrhoea, cervical cancer, cholera and meningitis are quickly being introduced in countries that did not use them previously. While, vaccination has routinely prioritized children in the past, today it is increasingly protecting health among people of all ages.

Commitment to research and development has led to developing new vaccines to protect against malaria, typhoid and Ebola, and many more vaccines are under development for emerging diseases, like COVID-19.

All of this is good news. But it also shows the challenges we’re facing as we try to ensure no one misses out on life-saving vaccines...

42margd
maig 4, 2020, 9:07am

A malaria "vaccine" for mosquitoes?

Malaria 'completely stopped' by microbe
James Gallagher | 5/4/2020

The malaria-blocking bug, Microsporidia MB... lives in the gut and genitals of the insects (on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya).

The researchers could not find a single mosquito carrying the Microsporidia that was harbouring the malaria parasite. And lab experiments...confirmed the microbe gave the mosquitoes protection.*

...Microsporidia MB could be priming the mosquito's immune system, so it is more able to fight off infections...or...having a profound effect on the mosquito's metabolism, making it inhospitable for the malaria parasite.

Microsporidia MB infections appear to be life-long. If anything, the experiments show they become more intense

...At the very least, 40% of mosquitoes in a region need to be infected with Microsporidia in order to make a significant dent in malaria.

The microbe can be passed between adult mosquitoes and is also passed from the female to her offspring.

So, the researchers are investigating two main strategies for increasing the number of infected mosquitoes.

Microsporidia form spores which could be released en masse to infect mosquitoes
Male mosquitoes (which don't bite) could be infected in the lab and released into the wild to infect the females when they have sex

...relatively uncontroversial as the species is already found in wild mosquitoes and is not introducing something new...would not have an impact on ecosystems that are dependent on them as food...

https://www.bbc.com/news/health-52530828

__________________________________________________​

* Herren, J.K., Mbaisi, L., Mararo, E. et al. 2020. A microsporidian impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. Nat Commun 11, 2187 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16121-y https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16121-y

Abstract
A possible malaria control approach involves the dissemination in mosquitoes of inherited symbiotic microbes to block Plasmodium transmission. However, in the Anopheles gambiae complex, the primary African vectors of malaria, there are limited reports of inherited symbionts that impair transmission. We show that a vertically transmitted microsporidian symbiont (Microsporidia MB) in the An. gambiae complex can impair Plasmodium transmission. Microsporidia MB is present at moderate prevalence in geographically dispersed populations of An. arabiensis in Kenya, localized to the mosquito midgut and ovaries, and is not associated with significant reductions in adult host fecundity or survival. Field-collected Microsporidia MB infected An. arabiensis tested negative for P. falciparum gametocytes and, on experimental infection with P. falciparum, sporozoites aren’t detected in Microsporidia MB infected mosquitoes. As a microbe that impairs Plasmodium transmission that is non-virulent and vertically transmitted, Microsporidia MB could be investigated as a strategy to limit malaria transmission.

43John5918
maig 4, 2020, 2:35pm

A report on Kenya's Citizen TV news this evening that child vaccinations have dropped dramatically in recent weeks as mothers are afraid to take their children to health centres for fear of catching the coronavirus. Medical experts are assuring the public that there are adequate safety measures in place at health centres, and that failing to vaccinate their children poses a huge health risk.

44margd
maig 14, 2020, 5:57am

Vaccine opponents are gaining in Facebook ‘battle for hearts and minds,’ new map shows
Meredith Wadman | May. 13, 2020

A first-of-its-kind analysis of more than 1300 Facebook pages with nearly 100 million followers has produced a network map that’s alarming public health professionals. Antivaccine pages have fewer followers than pro-vaccine pages but are more numerous, faster growing, and increasingly more connected to undecided pages, the study finds. If the current trends continue, the researchers predict, antivaccine views will dominate online discussion in 10 years—a time when a future vaccine against COVID-19 may be critical to public health...

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/05/vaccine-opponents-are-gaining-facebook-b...

__________________________________________________​

Neil F. Johnson et al. 2020. The online competition between pro- and anti-vaccination views. Nature (May 13, 2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2281-1 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2281-1

Abstract

Distrust in scientific expertise is dangerous. Opposition to vaccination with a future vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, for example, could amplify outbreaks as happened for measles in 2019. Homemade remedies and falsehoods are being shared widely on the Internet, as well as dismissals of expert advice. There is a lack of understanding about how this distrust evolves at the system level. Here we provide a map of the contention surrounding vaccines that has emerged from the global pool of around three billion Facebook users. Its core reveals a multi-sided landscape of unprecedented intricacy that involves nearly 100 million individuals partitioned into highly dynamic, interconnected clusters across cities, countries, continents and languages. Although smaller in overall size, anti-vaccination clusters manage to become highly entangled with undecided clusters in the main online network, whereas pro-vaccination clusters are more peripheral. Our theoretical framework reproduces the recent explosive growth in anti-vaccination views, and predicts that these views will dominate in a decade. Insights provided by this framework can inform new policies and approaches to interrupt this shift to negative views. Our results challenge the conventional thinking about undecided individuals in issues of contention surrounding health, shed light on other issues of contention such as climate change, and highlight the key role of network cluster dynamics in multi-species ecologies.

45margd
maig 16, 2020, 8:52am

In Georgia (the country), Clerics Use Anti-Vaxx Rhetoric, Call Pandemic a “Bluff”
May 15, 2020

...The global scientific community has joined forces to develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 respiratory syndrome. While the world awaits the results, a segment of the Georgian (Orthodox) clergy has begun questioning the vaccine and the benefits of vaccinations in general.

Meanwhile, Russia has been promoting anti-vaccination conspiracy theories targeting billionaire tech entrepreneur and philanthropist Bill Gates. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation plans to build factories to produce the COVID-19 vaccine once it is ready.

Among the bogus Gates conspiracy theories are claims that he wants to inject people with surveillance microchips and knew about the pandemic before it emerged in December.

In fact, Gates has advocated for pandemic preparedness for years. His foundation has spent millions on the prevention and treatment of contagious diseases and distributed vaccines in developing countries.

In his 2015 TED talk, given amid the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, Gates warned that a highly infectious virus, rather than a nuclear war, would be the greatest global catastrophe that could claim millions of lives.

After the outbreak of COVID-19, Gates contributed a quarter billion dollars to several coronavirus vaccine initiatives...

https://www.polygraph.info/a/in-georgia-clerics-use-anti-vaxx-rhetoric-call-coro...

46margd
maig 19, 2020, 11:00am

Vaccinations Fall to Alarming Rates, C.D.C. Study Shows
David Waldstein | May 18, 2020

...During the pandemic, the rates of childhood vaccinations have dropped significantly as many parents have been reluctant to schedule well-child visits at their doctors’ offices, for fear of contracting the coronavirus. As a result, children have fallen behind on vaccinations for diseases like measles and pertussis, better known as whooping cough.

According to a new study released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the vaccination rates in May for children under 2 years old in Michigan fell to alarming rates, including fewer than half of infants 5 months or younger.

...The Michigan study also noted that doctors could employ strategies to reduce the potential for coronavirus infection by creating separate rooms for healthy children and even by administering vaccinations to children in cars in parking lots. Those efforts could alleviate the fears among parents and improve the likelihood they catch up on their children’s vaccinations...

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/18/health/vaccinations-rates-coronavirus.html

47margd
maig 21, 2020, 2:50am

First clinical trial with genetically modified malaria vaccine completed
Radboud University | May 20, 2020

...an innovative study*... tested a candidate vaccine based on a genetically weakened malaria parasite. The results of this clinical trial...show that the vaccine is safe and elicits a defense response against a malaria infection.

...researchers made a weakened malaria parasite by removing two genes and developed it into a vaccine...This parasite reaches the first liver stage in humans, but the genetic weakening means that it does not continue to later stages or lead to infection of the blood. In earlier phases of the research, important genes were identified that, in their absence, prevented the parasite from developing in the liver....

Safe and partially effective

The results of the trial show that the vaccine is safe. It does not lead to infection of the blood and therefore does not cause malaria symptoms. It was also observed that the vaccinated volunteers developed an immune defense against a malaria infection, although this protection was not complete. This means that the disease is delayed but not prevented. According to the researchers, the measured immune responses and demonstrated safety are strong incentives to further develop a vaccine based on genetically attenuated malaria parasites.

https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-clinical-trial-genetically-malaria-vaccin...

__________________________________________________​
GMOs for good
Despite decades of progress and a multitude of approaches, a durable malaria vaccine remains elusive. Two new clinical studies in this issue report initial testing of genetically engineered malaria vaccines in malaria-naïve adults. Roestenberg et al. studied PfSPZ-GA1, a Plasmodium falciparum SPZ vaccine attenuated by deletion of b9 and slarp. Reuling et al. examined PbVac, SPZ of the rodent-specific parasite P. berghei modified to express the circumsporozoite protein from P. falciparum. Both vaccines were well tolerated and immunogenic. Controlled malaria challenge also indicated some evidence of protection. These genetically engineered vaccines are part of the new wave of malaria vaccines and warrant further clinical testing.

* Meta Roestenberg et al. 2020. A double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1/2a trial of the genetically attenuated malaria vaccine PfSPZ-GA1. Science Translational Medicine (2020). Science Translational Medicine 20 May 2020: Vol. 12, Issue 544 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz5629 https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/12/544/eaaz5629

Abstract
Immunization with attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites can induce protection against malaria infection, as shown by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites attenuated by radiation in multiple clinical trials. As alternative attenuation strategy with a more homogeneous population of Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ), genetically engineered Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (SPZ) lacking the genes b9 and slarp induced sterile protection against malaria in mice. Consequently, PfSPZ-GA1 Vaccine, a Pf identical double knockout (Pf∆b9∆slarp), was generated as a genetically attenuated malaria parasite vaccine and tested for safety, immunogenicity, and preliminary efficacy in malaria-naïve Dutch volunteers. Dose-escalation immunizations up to 9.0 × 105 PfSPZ of PfSPZ-GA1 Vaccine were well tolerated without breakthrough blood-stage infection. Subsequently, groups of volunteers were immunized three times by direct venous inoculation with cryopreserved PfSPZ-GA1 Vaccine (9.0 × 105 or 4.5 × 105 PfSPZ, N = 13 each), PfSPZ Vaccine (radiation-attenuated PfSPZ, 4.5 × 105 PfSPZ, N = 13), or normal saline placebo at 8-week intervals, followed by exposure to mosquito bite controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). After CHMI, 3 of 25 volunteers from both PfSPZ-GA1 groups were sterilely protected, and the remaining 17 of 22 showed a patency 9 days or more (median patency in controls, 7 days; range, 7 to 9). All volunteers in the PfSPZ Vaccine control group developed parasitemia (median patency, 9 days; range, 7 to 12). Immunized groups exhibited a significant, dose-related increase in anti-Pf circumsporozoite protein (CSP) antibodies and Pf-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ)–producing T cells. Although no definite conclusion can be drawn on the potential strength of protective efficacy of PfSPZ-GA1 Vaccine, the favorable safety profile and induced immune responses by PfSPZ-GA1 Vaccine warrant further clinical evaluation.

48margd
maig 22, 2020, 3:46am

False claim about early-years vaccines spreading on social media
Thomas Saint-Cricq | 21 May 2020

A post shared tens of thousands of times on Facebook claims that a list of 26 substances, some said to be “carcinogenic” or “toxic,” will be administered to children six years old and younger through vaccination. The claim is false. Although some of the ingredients listed do feature in children’s vaccines, the doses involved are not toxic, pass through the body and ensure the reliability of the vaccination...Health Canada points out that vaccines may contain “minute amounts of chemicals that are used during the production process, such as for the growth or purification of specific antigens or the inactivation of toxins.”

Here are some specific examples where specialists examined the individual ingredients and found the doses are too small to be toxic.

Formaldehyde
Potassium chloride
Potassium phosphate & sodium bicarbonate
Antibiotics
Aluminum
Gelatin and polysorbate 80
Vaccine schedule

https://factcheck.afp.com/false-claim-about-early-years-vaccines-spreading-socia...

49margd
maig 22, 2020, 3:54am

Misinformation on US flu shot ingredients resurfaces during pandemic
Louis Baudoin-Laarman | 07 May 2020

...ingredients contained in this year’s flu shots...alleged...mercury, antifreeze, phenol, animal blood, animal viruses, and formaldehyde. Trace amounts of formaldehyde are present in flu vaccines authorized in the US this year, and the mercury-based product thimerosal is present in some of them....

Here we examine each ingredient allegedly present in (2019-2020) flu shots.

Mercury
Antifreeze
Ethylene glycol
Phenol
Animal Blood
Animal Viruses
Formaldehyde

https://factcheck.afp.com/misinformation-us-flu-shot-ingredients-resurfaces-duri...

50margd
maig 22, 2020, 4:00am

Flu shots in Canada: ingredients explained
Louis Baudoin-Laarman | 23 October 2018

...ingredients contained in this year’s flu shots...alleged...mercury, antifreeze, phenol, animal blood, animal viruses, and formaldehyde. While trace amounts of formaldehyde is present in flu vaccines authorized in Canada this year, as well as the mercury-based product thimerosal in some of them,...ingredients list is misleading and mostly inaccurate.

Here we examine each ingredient allegedly present in (2018-2019) flu shots.

Mercury
Antifreeze
Phenol
Animal Blood
Animal Viruses
Formaldehyde

https://factcheck.afp.com/flu-shots-canada-ingredients-explained

51margd
Editat: maig 22, 2020, 4:09am

Thimerosal: the mercury-based preservative at the center of flu vaccine misinformation
AFP Canada | 14 November 2019. Updated on Friday 15 November 2019

According to social media posts, flu shots contain 25 micrograms of mercury, despite the safe limit for injected mercury being zero. This is misleading; of the nine flu vaccines authorized in Canada this year, only five contain thimerosal, a mercury-containing organic compound used to preserve vaccines. Additionally, studies find that the amount of mercury contained in vaccines is too low to have an adverse impact on health...

Thimerosal is a mercury-based preservative that prevents bacterial and fungal contamination of vaccines, and other consumer products such as cosmetics...

...important difference between the ethylmercury contained in thimerosal, and the methylmercury present in fish, which is a known to be dangerous if consumed in large amounts...

...Health Canada states, “The amount of thimerosal in vaccines is small, and no studies have documented any associated adverse effects.”

The World Health Organization also states on its website, “There is no evidence to suggest that the amount of thimerosal used in vaccines poses a health risk.”

...dementia...Alzheimer's Disease...autism...

The five thimerosal-containing vaccines (of nine authorized) this season...only contain thimerosal when they are dispensed from multi-dose vials, as the larger quantity makes preservation more difficult...if people are uncomfortable with thimerosal in flu shots, they may ask their doctor for a pre-filled, single-dose vaccine, which does not contain any...

https://factcheck.afp.com/thimerosal-mercury-based-preservative-center-flu-vacci...

52margd
maig 22, 2020, 4:12am

No, flu shots do not make people contagious
Louis Baudoin-Laarman | 23 October 2019

As Canada enters flu season, many online posts warn individuals that getting vaccinated will cause them to be contagious for several weeks. This is false; flu shots contain dead influenza viruses that are not infectious, according to the Canadian Public Health Agency (CPHA) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC).

...Some vaccines...have not only been inactivated but have also been split, and sometimes even purified down to the protein needed to create the vaccine...

https://factcheck.afp.com/no-flu-shots-do-not-make-people-contagious

53margd
Editat: maig 23, 2020, 7:56am

A Lot of People Believe Bill Gates Wants to (use a mass vaccination program) to Microchip Them
Kevin Drum | May 22, 2020

50% of Fox viewers!
19% of Democrats!

https://www.motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2020/05/a-lot-of-people-believe-bill-gate...

54John5918
maig 23, 2020, 8:28am

>53 margd:

While it's understandable that some parents are worried about claims that vaccines may harm their children, even though all the serious evidence is to the contrary, I find it incredible that so many people believe this Bill Gates conspiracy theory. I'd better rush off and put on my tinfoil helmet to protect myself from the aliens - they're the ones who are really trying to microchip us, don't you know? Or maybe Bill Gates is an alien in disguise?

55margd
Editat: maig 23, 2020, 9:38am

>54 John5918: One fellow's reaction:

Sh*t! Don’t tell my mobile phone, my Apple Watch, my laptop, my Google Maps or Alexa.
I’m trying to keep a low profile from the government tracking me.
- Aaron Guy @AaronGuyPT8:47 PM · May 22, 2020

_______________________________________

Also, don't tell margd's Fitbit, 360, Chevy Silverado, social media accounts, Amazon, etc.!

My dog's microchip is ~ the size of a grain of rice: imagine the bore of the needle! (Sorry, Annie...)

56John5918
maig 24, 2020, 12:32am

Europe's Covid predicament – how do you solve a problem like the anti-vaxxers? (Guardian)

In front of Berlin’s Brandenburg Gate a politically incongruous crowd of protesters gathered yesterday. They wore flowers in their hair, hazmat suits emblazoned with the letter Q, badges displaying the old German imperial flag or T-shirts reading “Gates, My Ass” – a reference to the US software billionaire Bill Gates...

The alliance of anti-vaxxers, neo-Nazi rabble-rousers and esoteric hippies...


57Kuiperdolin
maig 28, 2020, 5:20pm

Anti-vaxxers are just anti-GMO who are bad at PR.

58John5918
maig 28, 2020, 11:20pm

>57 Kuiperdolin:

No, they're not. See for example the discussion on the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 (8) thread from about #99 onwards.

59Kuiperdolin
maig 29, 2020, 9:26am

Nothing in this thread (*) addresses the fact anti-vaxxing and anti-GMO stem from the same well : hidebound luddism, conspiracy-theory mad libs, anti-intellectual ochlocracy...

(*) though to be fair I have several posters there blocked so their posts might address it. Then again they're blocked for a reason.

60John5918
maig 29, 2020, 1:21pm

>59 Kuiperdolin:

Well, well have to agree to disagree about "hidebound luddism, conspiracy-theory mad libs, anti-intellectual ochlocracy",even though I had to look up ochlocracy, and I have no idea what a "mad lib" is.

62kiparsky
maig 29, 2020, 1:57pm

I would suggest that anti-GMO campaigns and anti-vaccine campaigns tend to appeal to the same sorts of people, who are also susceptible to various other health-related delusions, but they are not particularly related. There are lots of such delusions - I remember "chemtrails", anti-fluoride campaigns, all sorts of such things. The anti-vaccine people are just a particularly malignant strain, since they pose a serious public health risk as well as a risk to their children.

63mikevail
Editat: maig 29, 2020, 2:39pm

>62 kiparsky:
It's damn near criminal behavior. Vaccinated children develop autism at the same rate as unvaccinated children. Anti-vaxx movement is less about the children and more about their parents narcissism.

64kiparsky
maig 29, 2020, 3:24pm

>63 mikevail: I do not disagree with that. This is one reason I don't think it's helpful to lump the anti-vaccine people together with the anti-GMO people. If someone wants to look for a "no GMO" label on their frozen broccoli, I have little problem with that. I'd rather focus on the people who are doing harm to their children and to those around them.

65Kuiperdolin
maig 30, 2020, 7:05pm

> 60 : "Mad Libs is a phrasal template word game where one player prompts others for a list of words to substitute for blanks in a story before reading aloud." By extension, any verbiage that's seemingly random and nonsensical, like the anti-GMO doctrine.

> 61 : I didn't say anything about the left. You're obsessed.

66John5918
Editat: maig 31, 2020, 7:13am

>65 Kuiperdolin:

Thanks for the definition. I had never hear of this word game. But the idea that some people would like to know what is in the food they buy, and want food labelling that is already commonplace within Europe, is "verbiage that's seemingly random and nonsensical", is, er "verbiage that's seemingly random and nonsensical".

67margd
Editat: maig 31, 2020, 8:18am

A recent anti-vaxx campaign is quickly refuted. However:
"A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on." (Winston Churchill)

Do Vaccinations Violate Human Rights Under The Nuremberg Code?
Medical ethics and legal experts said the principles,* named after the Nuremberg trials, are compatible with vaccination.
AFP | 30 May 2020

..."Vaccines are in direct violation of the Nuremberg Code," a flyer photographed and shared on Facebook in Canada on May 25, 2020 warns...

https://www.boomlive.in/world/do-vaccinations-violate-human-rights-under-the-nur...

--------------------------------------------------​

*(from Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10. Nuremberg, October 1946–April 1949. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O, 1949–1953.)

Permissible Medical Experiments

The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human beings, when kept within reasonably well-defined bounds, conform to the ethics of the medical profession generally. The protagonists of the practice of human experimentation justify their views on the basis that such experiments yield results for the good of society that are unprocurable by other methods or means of study. All agree, however, that certain basic principles must be observed in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal concepts:

1. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential.
2. The experiment should be such as to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study, and not random and unnecessary in nature.
3. The experiment should be so designed and based on the results of animal experimentation and a knowledge of the natural history of the disease or other problem under study that the anticipated results will justify the performance of the experiment.
4. The experiment should be so conducted as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.
5. No experiment should be conducted where there is an a priori reason to believe that death or disabling injury will occur; except, perhaps, in those experiments where the experimental physicians also serve as subjects.
6. The degree of risk to be taken should never exceed that determined by the humanitarian importance of the problem to be solved by the experiment.
7. Proper preparations should be made and adequate facilities provided to protect the experimental subject against even remote possibilities of injury, disability, or death.
8. The experiment should be conducted only by scientifically qualified persons. The highest degree of skill and care should be required through all stages of the experiment of those who conduct or engage in the experiment.
9. During the course of the experiment the human subject should be at liberty to bring the experiment to an end if he has reached the physical or mental state where continuation of the experiment seems to him to be impossible.
10. During the course of the experiment the scientist in charge must be prepared to terminate the experiment at any stage, if he has probably cause to believe, in the exercise of the good faith, superior skill and careful judgment required of him that a continuation of the experiment is likely to result in injury, disability, or death to the experimental subject.

https://www.ushmm.org/information/exhibitions/online-exhibitions/special-focus/d...
__________________________________________________​

FYI, the US and Cdn reporting systems for adverse events associated with vaccines:

Canadian Adverse Events Following Immunization Surveillance System (CAEFISS)
https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/immunization/canadian-adverse-ev...

Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services
https://vaers.hhs.gov/data.html

68margd
juny 6, 2020, 7:51am

Meme Misrepresents Fauci’s Position on Vaccine Trials
Katherine Hartzell | June 5, 2020

Quick Take
A viral meme falsely suggests Dr. Anthony Fauci supports administering a COVID-19 vaccine before clinical trials are completed. Fauci supports the manufacture of vaccines while trials are underway — but only administering the vaccine once the trials are over and it is deemed effective and safe...

https://www.factcheck.org/2020/06/meme-misrepresents-faucis-position-on-vaccine-...

69John5918
juny 7, 2020, 12:05am

'It’s psychologically easier': how anti-vaxxers capitalised on coronavirus fears to spread misinformation (Guardian)

While teams around the world race to create a vaccine for Covid-19, the anti-vaxxers are racing to convince people that it will be dangerous...So there is a genuine concern that if and when the vaccine “ticket out” is found, efforts to get people to take it will flounder. While the pandemic that has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands of people continues to rage, the anti-vaccination movement has capitalised on the fear and confusion created to spread viral propaganda...

70margd
Editat: juny 7, 2020, 3:00am

>69 John5918: Yup...article captures the situation out there. I think strategy described near end of the article is good one.

71margd
juny 10, 2020, 11:24am

Abortion opponents protest COVID-19 vaccines’ use of fetal cells
Meredith Wadman | Jun. 5, 2020

Senior Catholic leaders in the United States and Canada, along with other antiabortion groups, are raising ethical objections to promising COVID-19 vaccine candidates that are manufactured using cells derived from human fetuses electively aborted decades ago. They have not sought to block government funding for the vaccines, which include two candidate vaccines that the Trump administration plans to support with an investment of up to $1.7 billion, as well as a third candidate made by a Chinese company in collaboration with Canada’s National Research Council (NRC). But they are urging funders and policymakers to ensure that companies develop other vaccines that do not rely on such human fetal cell lines and, in the United States, asking the government to “incentivize” firms to only make vaccines that don’t rely on fetal cells.

...The Vatican’s Pontifical Academy for Life declared in 2005 and reaffirmed in 2017 that in the absence of alternatives, Catholics could, in good conscience, receive vaccines made using historical human fetal cell lines...

*Clarification, 8 June, 12:10 p.m.: This story has been updated to clarify that the Vatican approves of Catholics receiving vaccines manufactured using human fetal cells only in the absence of alternatives.

https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/06/abortion-opponents-protest-covid-19-vacc...

72John5918
juny 14, 2020, 11:55pm

Demand for flu vaccine soars as countries plan for second Covid-19 wave (Guardian)

Fears of a second wave of coronavirus have sparked a global scramble for influenza shots from countries that hope to vaccinate great swathes of the population to reduce pressure on their health services.

Health officials in the UK are considering whether to offer flu shots to everyone as part of planning for a resurgence of coronavirus in the autumn, but with other countries hitting on the same strategy, demand for flu vaccines has soared.

Mass immunisation would aim to slash the number of people hospitalised with the flu this winter, giving the NHS a better chance of coping with any surge in Covid-19 patients that follows the easing of lockdown restrictions. The flu vaccine does not protect against coronavirus infection...

73margd
juny 15, 2020, 2:35pm

Misleading Image Links Vaccine Ingredients To Lethal Injections Potassium chloride is a salt and medical experts say the minimal amount used in vaccines will not harm recipients. By - AFP | 15 Jun 2020

https://www.boomlive.in/world/misleading-image-links-vaccine-ingredients-to-leth...

Claim Review : Potassium Chloride, an ingredient in vaccines, is also used in lethal injections used to execute death row inmates. Claimed By : Posts on Facebook and Instagram
Fact Check : Misleading

https://www.boomlive.in/world/misleading-image-links-vaccine-ingredients-to-leth...

74rastaphrog
juny 16, 2020, 9:45am

>73 margd: And many people purposely ingest it daily as a salt substitute.

75John5918
Editat: juny 20, 2020, 12:10am

WHO certifies South Sudan polio free (Xinhua)

One of the results of mass vaccination.

76margd
Editat: jul. 4, 2020, 7:37am

Here’s how we’ll know when a COVID-19 vaccine is ready
Roxanne Khamsi | June 30, 2020

Health officials have set targets for how good and how safe a COVID-19 vaccine needs to be, but communicating that to the public can present challenges...

...debacle. The hastily-developed (1976 flu) vaccine was linked to more than 500 cases of paralysis, and 25 people died from it. Soon after news of the Fort Dix outbreak first broke, half of the general public had voiced their intentions to get immunized. But as events unfolded, only 22 percent of the U.S. population ended up getting the vaccine by year’s end.

...as COVID-19 sweeps across the world and more than 140 vaccines are in the works to protect against it, the question is: How will we know when one is good enough and safe enough to counsel people to take it?

Although a typical vaccine can take years to get off the ground, those designed in this pandemic are moving ahead at a pace never seen before...

Some scientists are wary of settling on the first vaccine that comes to fruition. It’s a delicate balancing act for public health officials to decide when a vaccine is ready for mass rollout to the public.

If, for instance, they scale up production of a vaccine with limited effectiveness and promote it heavily, that might dissuade developers from striving to bring a better one to the market.

...For the COVID-19 vaccine, the ideal candidate would be able to establish immunity in at least 70 percent of the population, including the elderly, as outlined in April by the World Health Organization (WHO)...

On the flipside, the WHO says that the minimum acceptable would be a COVID-19 vaccine that was 50 percent effective. On June 30, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration mirrored this guidance, releasing a document that set the same baseline target. Some researchers aren’t convinced: “Fifty percent would be terrible,” says Byram Bridle, a viral immunologist at the University of Guelph’s Ontario Veterinary College in Canada. “For this pandemic to end, we need to achieve herd immunity,” says Bridle, and a vaccine only effective for 50 percent falls short of getting us to that goal.

...there have been rare but noteworthy surprises in the past. For example, the first vaccine for diarrhea-causing rotavirus was withdrawn from the market in 1999 when it was linked to an uncommon and potentially fatal sliding of one part of the bowel into another. This severe adverse event wasn’t detected in the clinical trials leading up to its rollout. More recently, in 2009, the Pandemrix vaccine against the swine flu showed signs of a link to narcolepsy in Europe. (The vaccine was never licensed for use in the United States.)

...In its phase one trials for the Moderna vaccine against COVID-19, four of 45 individuals who received the vaccine had a medically significant adverse reaction, including one man who developed a high fever and fainted. Yet researchers already knew that mRNA vaccines can sometimes overstimulate an immune system, and three of the four subjects who had these side effects were taking the highest dosage in the trial, which has now been discontinued.

...The key challenge for the future, as (Matthew Laurens, pediatric infectious disease specialist at the Center for Vaccine Development (CVD) at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore) sees it, is to explain to people how they can do their part in stopping the pandemic by getting immunized once a suitable vaccine is available. “We have to do our utmost to educate the public about how vaccines are tested and the safety profiles of vaccines and what they can actually do, and how they can prevent disease in a community”...

Vaccine hesitancy might not be the only hurdle to overcome. (Charlie Weller, head of the vaccines program at Wellcome, a London-based biomedical research funder) anticipates a scenario where—at least initially—public interest in obtaining the vaccine might outstrip the amount available.

Amesh Adalja of the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in Baltimore says that there might be “chaotic” scenes if demand is high and the rollout is not done carefully “Just think about Black Friday and what happens when people are in lines”...

Coordinators of past immunization campaigns for other ailments are watching the COVID-19 vaccine development process closely, in hopes of heading off missteps that would undermine uptake and access. “It will not take much to discredit the vaccine in the eyes of the population,” (Roland Sutter, who was coordinator for research, policy, product development, and containment for polio at the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland, until retiring in December) says. “The rollout has to be carefully thought out so that it will not destroy confidence in the vaccine.”...

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/06/how-we-will-know-when-coronav...

77margd
jul. 17, 2020, 2:31pm

Infant deaths did not decrease during the pandemic due to a reduced use of vaccines;
vaccines are not associated with sudden infant death syndrome
Flora Teoh, Science Editor, Health Feedback

CLAIM
Vaccines are a cause of sudden infant death death syndrome; infant deaths decreased dramatically during the lockdown, when the number of vaccines administered was reduced

VERDICT MISLEADING

SOURCE: Amy Becker, Mark Blaxill, Children's Health Defense, Health Choice, 18 Jun. 2020

DETAILS
Lacks context: The claim that child deaths decreased significantly during the pandemic is based on incomplete data. Deaths in the U.S. are reported to the CDC only after death certificates are received by local health authorities, which can take weeks to months. The most recent CDC data therefore always underreport the most recent deaths. The authors of the article did not sufficiently account for this underreporting in their analysis.

Misrepresents a complex reality: The article compares only pediatric vaccine uptake during the pandemic to child deaths and does not consider the many other factors which may have contributed to the recent decline in child deaths, such as lockdowns leading to reduced travel and social contact, culminating in fewer traffic accidents and infectious diseases, respectively.

KEY TAKE AWAY
Vaccines are safe and scientific studies have found no association between vaccination and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Blaxill and Becker’s report is based on incomplete data, as they did not account sufficiently for the lag time that occurs between a death and its reporting to the U.S. CDC. Their findings that child deaths have significantly decreased compared to previous years are therefore spurious and premature. The duo also failed to account for other factors which may have contributed to changes in child mortality, such as stay-at-home orders, which would have limited the spread of other infectious diseases besides COVID-19.

FULL CLAIM: Vaccines are a cause of sudden infant death death syndrome; infant deaths decreased dramatically during the lockdown, when the number of vaccines administered was reduced

REVIEW...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/infant-deaths-did-not-decrease-during-the...

78margd
ag. 4, 2020, 7:51am

Covid-19 conspiracy theories: 6 tips on how to engage anti-vaxxers
Jovan Byford | August 4, 2020

...I have been researching conspiracy theories for over two decades and have spoken to many believers. Here are the six rules I use for talking to conspiracy theorists in the effort to change their mind.

1. Acknowledge scale of the task...
2. Recognize the emotional dimension...
3. Find out what they actually believe...
4. Establish common ground...
5. Challenge the facts, value their argument...
6. Finally, be realistic...

https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/04/health/conspiracy-theories-covid-19-response-tips...

79Cubby.R.S.
ag. 4, 2020, 8:47am

>78 margd:

I am not an "anti-vaxxer", but as someone who has been lucky enough to have good health, I believe it is very important to allow my system to develop antibodies. I also believe it is important to stay home when I feel sick and notice flu like symptoms. Our family gets all other vaccinations.

Do you think by taking a vaccine; that we may not develop symptoms and potentially mask the virus? Does that mean that I would be more likely spread the virus unknowingly? I am always very cautious about washing my hands and touching things that others might, which I will admit has been developed further as a parent. We do not get flu shots, and we have had very few cases. In fact, the year my wife did get the flu shot (she just had our youngest and was convinced by her doctor), our whole family ended up with it. I just don't see the value in getting a shot that decreases our likelihood of developing natural antibodies. If by chance there is a strand of deadly flu, that destroys even healthy immune systems, then I doubt that there will be a commensurate virus.

80margd
ag. 4, 2020, 1:36pm

>79 Cubby.R.S.: Excellent NYT article from COVID thread touched on the advantages of vaccine over natural infections and disease:

Scared That Covid-19 Immunity Won’t Last? Don’t Be
Akiko Iwasaki and Ruslan Medzhitov, professors of immunobiology at Yale | July 31, 2020

...Vaccines come in different flavors — they can be based on killed or live attenuated viral material, nucleic acids or recombinant proteins. But all vaccines consist of two main components: an antigen and an adjuvant.

The antigen is the part of the virus we want the adaptive immune response to react to and target. The adjuvant is an agent that mimics the infection and helps jump-start the immune response.

One beauty of vaccines — and one of their great advantages over our body’s natural reaction to infections — is that their antigens can be designed to focus the immune response on a virus’s Achilles heel (whatever that may be).

Another advantage is that vaccines allow for different kinds and different doses of adjuvants — and so, for calibration and fine-tuning that can help boost and lengthen immune responses.

The immune response generated against a virus during natural infection is, to some degree, at the mercy of the virus itself. Not so with vaccines.

Since many viruses evade the innate immune system, natural infections sometimes do not result in robust or long-lasting immunity. The human papillomavirus is one of them, which is why it can cause chronic infections. The papillomavirus vaccine triggers a far better antibody response to its viral antigen than does a natural HPV infection: It is almost 100 percent effective in preventing HPV infection and disease.

Not only does vaccination protect against infection and disease; it also blocks viral transmission — and, if sufficiently widespread, can help confer so-called herd immunity to a population...

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/31/opinion/coronavirus-antibodies-immunity.html

__________________________________________________​

Also from the COVID thread is some discussion on yet another advantage of live attenuated vaccines like BCG (for TB) and MMR (Measles, Mumps, Rubella): they appear to "provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of the vaccine by inducing “trained” nonspecific innate immune cells for improved host responses against subsequent infections." BCG vaccine is helpful in treating bladder cancer and may reduce COVID harm in countries where it is commonly given to children. Below is proposal to test live attenuated MMR vaccine for similar benefit:.

Paul L. Fidel Jr. and Mairi C. Noverr. 2020. Could an Unrelated Live Attenuated Vaccine Serve as a Preventive Measure To Dampen Septic Inflammation Associated with COVID-19 Infection? (Opinion/Hypothesis) mBio DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00907-20 https://mbio.asm.org/content/11/3/e00907-20

ABSTRACT
We propose the concept that administration of an unrelated live attenuated vaccine, such as MMR (measles, mumps, rubella), could serve as a preventive measure against the worst sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is mounting evidence that live attenuated vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of the vaccine by inducing “trained” nonspecific innate immune cells for improved host responses against subsequent infections. Mortality in COVID-19 cases is strongly associated with progressive lung inflammation and eventual sepsis. Vaccination with MMR in immunocompetent individuals has no contraindications and may be especially effective for health care workers who can easily be exposed to COVID-19. Following the lead of other countries conducting clinical trials with the live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG) vaccine under a similar concept, a clinical trial with MMR in high-risk populations may provide a “low-risk–high-reward” preventive measure in saving lives during this unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic.

...According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), there are few contraindications against administration to adults of a live attenuated vaccine such as MMR if the recipient is immunocompetent and not pregnant and has not shown previous allergic responses to vaccination (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/hcp/recommendations.html). In fact, MMR vaccination is recommended in high-risk adults (i.e., health care workers) and people born before 1957 who did not receive the vaccine as a child. Adults who had received the MMR vaccine in childhood likely still possess antibody titers against the targeted viruses but not the shorter-lived trained innate leukocytes. Hence, at the very least, the MMR vaccine would provide added protection against measles, mumps, and rubella for older adults. But with the added induction of the trained innate cells, the MMR vaccination could provide protection against the worst sequelae of COVID-19...

81margd
Editat: ag. 4, 2020, 5:52pm

>79 Cubby.R.S.: Another reason to be vaccinated against pneumonia and flu?

Flu, Pneumonia Vaccines Tied to Lower Alzheimer's Risk
Judy George | July 27, 2020. Updated July 30, 2020

Flu and pneumonia vaccinations were linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease, research from the virtual Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) suggested.

People who were vaccinated against pneumonia when they were ages 65 to 75 years had nearly 40% less risk of Alzheimer's disease depending on their genetic profile, reported Svetlana Ukraintseva, PhD, of Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, and colleagues.

...Total count of pneumonia and flu vaccinations between ages 65 and 75 also correlated with a lower risk of Alzheimer's later in life, but this effect was not seen for flu shots alone.

...And having at least one influenza vaccination was associated with a 17% reduction in Alzheimer's prevalence, an analysis by Albert Amran, a medical student at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, and colleagues showed.

...Links between flu vaccination and Alzheimer's were strongest for people who had their first vaccine at a younger age: those who received their first documented flu shot at age 60 benefitted more than those who received their first shot at age 70.

...Dallas Anderson, PhD, MPH, of the National Institute on Aging in Bethesda, Maryland..."There may be health effects beyond preventing the flu. For example, there has been some research looking at reduced risk for stroke and stroke hospitalization. It makes sense to also look at reduced risk for dementia"

"Observational studies can never show definitively that getting flu shots will prevent Alzheimer's disease or dementia. The evidence will be suggestive at best," Anderson continued. "Is it the flu shot itself that's important? Or is it key differences between those who opt for flu shots and those who don't? Studies need to account for those differences."

Besides these limitations, the research was constrained by the underlying data: clinical codes may reflect other dementia, not just Alzheimer's disease. In both studies, unmeasured variables may have influenced results.

https://www.medpagetoday.com/meetingcoverage/aaic/87752

--------------------------------------------------​
Conference presentations not yet peer-reviewed:

Ukraintseva S, et al "Repurposing of existing vaccines for personalized prevention of Alzheimer's disease: Vaccination against pneumonia may reduce AD risk depending on genotype" Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2020.

Amran, A et al "Influenza vaccination is associated with a reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease" Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2020.

82margd
ag. 15, 2020, 6:11am

Vaccines undergo strict safety testing before they are licensed for use in the U.S. and many other countries; no validity to the claim of a 33% “death rate” from COVID-19 vaccine

CLAIM
“Would you take a vaccine with a 33% death rate to feel safe from a virus with a .06% death rate?”

VERDICT
Inaccurate

SOURCE: Facebook users, Facebook, 30 Jul. 2020

DETAILS
Inaccurate: The claim that a COVID-19 vaccine has a 33% death rate is not supported by scientific evidence. This claim is likely based on a separate false claim about a nonexistent COVID-19 vaccine trial from Ukraine.

KEY TAKE AWAY
More than a hundred COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in the midst of testing worldwide. The claim that a COVID-19 vaccine has a 33% “death rate” is false; there is no evidence to support it. The claim is most likely based on a separate false claim that five out of 15 volunteers—among whom were four Ukrainian soldiers—died in a vaccine trial in Ukraine, which was refuted by the Ukrainian military. Despite efforts to accelerate the usual timelines used in vaccine development, COVID-19 vaccines are not being approved by public health authorities until they undergo rigorous testing for safety and effectiveness. A vaccine with a demonstrated 33% “death rate” has not been and would never be approved for use in the U.S. or most other countries.

...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/vaccines-undergo-strict-safety-testing-be...

83margd
ag. 15, 2020, 7:10am

US government slow to act as anti-vaxxers spread lies on social media about coronavirus vaccine
Elizabeth Cohen and Dana Vigue | August 13, 2020

(CNN)While anti-vaxxers flood social media with lies about the upcoming coronavirus vaccine -- that it contains monkey brains, that it's a CIA plot to take over the world -- the government's multi-billion-dollar vaccine effort has yet to come up with a public education campaign to counteract that propaganda.

"We are behind here," said Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health. "We haven't done a good job of getting coronavirus vaccine information out there...Speaking for myself, I think I underestimated the level of public resistance...I didn't expect it to be that widespread."

...A CNN poll in May found one-third of Americans said they would not try to get vaccinated against coronavirus, even if the vaccine is widely available and low cost.

A spokesman for "Operation Warp Speed," the Trump administration's effort to get a coronavirus vaccine on the market, said a public education campaign will "soon focus" on vaccine education.

"We see more vaccine hesitancy with the Covid vaccine than with other vaccines. We know that. This concerns us, of course," said Michael Caputo, an assistant secretary for the US Department of Health and Human Services.

...Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institutes of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, and others say they expect a vaccine could be on the market in December or January...

https://www.cnn.com/2020/08/12/health/anti-vaxxers-covid-19/index.html

84margd
ag. 16, 2020, 5:08am

No evidence to link flu vaccinations to increased COVID-19 risk, say experts
AAP FactCheck | August 14, 2020

(1) The Statement
A Facebook post claims medical studies show the flu vaccination will increase a person’s susceptibility to COVID-19 and could be “contributing to the outbreak”.

The post features an image of US Congress with text overlaid which reads, “Medical studies showing the flu shot not only increases susceptibility to the Corona Virus but could be contributing to the outbreak”.

The post’s caption asks, “Wait, what? Not another conspiracy theory being validated?”

The caption links to a website called Australian National Review which features a response by a “retired paediatrician from New York” on the risk of being more susceptible to coronavirus infections from the flu shot.

The August 9 post has received more than 270 shares and more than 27,000 views.

(2) The Analysis...

(3) The Verdict
Based on the evidence, AAP FactCheck found the Facebook post to be false. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said the 2012 flu vaccination study referred to in the post did not make people more susceptible to other respiratory infections. A vaccine researcher from the University of Melbourne and an infectious diseases paediatrician from the University of Sydney told AAP FactCheck that making a connection to COVID-19 from the study was impossible.

False – The claims in the post are factually inaccurate.

https://www.aap.com.au/no-evidence-to-link-flu-vaccinations-to-increased-covid-1...

85margd
ag. 20, 2020, 8:24am

(Massachusetts) Is Requiring Its Students to Get Flu Vaccine by End of Year — and, Yes, It’s Legal
Colin Kalmbacher | Aug 19th, 2020, 7:07 pm

Massachusetts will mandate that all students obtain the flu vaccine by the end of 2020 in order to attend classes next year. This is a valid and constitutional use of the Bay State’s police power.

According to a Wednesday announcement from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, “all children 6 months of age or older who are attending Massachusetts child care, pre-school, kindergarten, K-12, and colleges and universities” will be required to obtain influenza immunizations by December 31, 2020 “unless either a medical or religious exemption is provided.”

The only exceptions are for students who are homeschooled, certain higher education students “who exclusively attend classes online and never visit campus in person,” and those with either valid medical or religious objections.

“Every year, thousands of people of all ages are affected by influenza, leading to many hospitalizations and deaths,” the Department of Public Health’s Bureau of Infectious Disease and Laboratory Sciences Medical Director Dr. Larry Madoff said. “It is more important now than ever to get a flu vaccine because flu symptoms are very similar to those of COVID-19 and preventing the flu will save lives and preserve healthcare resources.”

The announcement set off a predictable wave of condemnation on social media from people who criticized the order using colorful language. Some characterized the public health initiative as an attempt to exert control and/or questioned its legality. While such responses are more or less perennial and largely beyond the realm of this explainer, in legal terms, the order is on sure footing.

In 1905, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a mandatory smallpox vaccination law in the landmark case stylized as Jacobson v. Massachusetts. Under the law in question, those who ran afoul of the requirement were subject to fines and potential imprisonment. The petitioner objected to the law under the 14th Amendment and the nation’s high court issued a 7-2 majority opinion in favor of the state and it’s public health mandate...

https://lawandcrime.com/covid-19-pandemic/one-state-is-requiring-its-students-to...

86John5918
ag. 26, 2020, 12:35am

Africa declared free of wild polio after decades of work (Guardian)

Achievement comes following Nigeria vaccination drive, with last cases of wild virus recorded four years ago...

87margd
set. 4, 2020, 7:58am

A person’s response to vaccination is not associated with birthmarks or the presence of mutations in a gene involved with vitamin B9 (folate) production

CLAIM
Birthmarks are indicators of the MTHFR gene; “When people have MTHFR their chances of vaccine reactions increase because they cannot detox the toxins from the vaccines”

VERDICT
INCORRECT

SOURCE:
Facebook users, Facebook, 3 Nov. 2018

DETAILS
Incorrect: Birthmarks are not indicators of mutations in a gene that codes for an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene) or any other genetic condition. Mutations in this gene, involved in vitamin B9 production, are also not associated with a higher risk of adverse effects of vaccines. Some rare mutations in the MTHFR gene lead to a metabolic disorder, but most of the common MTHFR mutations have little or no impact on human health.

Misrepresents source: The claim misrepresents findings from a single study to incorrectly associate mutations in the MTHFR gene with adverse effects from vaccination. The authors of the study denounced the inappropriate use of their article to support medical exemptions to vaccination in children who have variations in the MTHFR gene.

KEY TAKEAWAY
Every person has a gene that produces an enzyme called methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene), which converts folic acid into its active form folate, also called vitamin B9. This gene helps repair DNA and remove free radicals. People with some rare mutations in the gene may have an increased risk of developing skeletal and neurological problems or blood clots, due to a reduction in MTHFR enzyme activity. However, most of the common MTHFR mutations either do not affect enzyme activity or only require individuals with the mutation to supplement their diets with folic acid. No scientific evidence supports the claim that mutations in the MTHFR gene are associated with either birthmarks or a higher risk of adverse reactions to vaccines...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/a-persons-response-to-vaccination-is-not-...

88margd
set. 25, 2020, 1:49pm

Flu vaccinations not linked to increased COVID-19 risk
Dibash Kumar Das | September 24, 2020

According to a recent study, the flu vaccine does not increase a person’s risk of getting COVID-19 and is not associated with severe illness and death from the disease...

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/flu-vaccinations-not-linked-to-increas...

--------------------------------------------------​--------------------------------------------------​

Joe G. Zein et al. 2020. Safety of Influenza Vaccine during COVID-19. Journal of Clinical and Translational Science ( Accepted manuscript, pp. 1-6, 17 September 2020) DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/cts.2020.543 https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-clinical-and-translational-sc... https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/C26A4170...

...Overall, our analysis demonstrates that influenza vaccination does not increase the incidence of COVID-19 or worsen the related morbidity or mortality. This is consistent with the prevailing evidence that the influenza vaccine is safe and serious adverse events, such as Guillain-Barré Syndrome, are rare... Although our data is reassuring, many uncertainties deserve further consideration. Surveillance data needs to be prospectively collected in fall 2020 to study the outcome of concurrent SARS-CoV-2 and influenza infection, and to assess any interaction between influenza vaccinations, a newly developed vaccine against coronavirus, influenza and COVID-19 infection. The effect of influenza vaccines, and adjuvanted vaccines in particular, on Th17 immune responses in corona virus immunopathology and on vaccine-induced immune enhancement...is unknown and need to be closely monitored. Occasionally, non-neutralizing antibodies following influenza vaccination or infection have amplified disease severity following a heterologous influenza challenge. In humans, the 2008-2009 seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was associated with increased pandemic H1N1 disease severity...This might be relevant in fall 2020,as new avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes have been recently reported... However, based on our data, influenza vaccine is not associated with increased pandemic COVID-19 severity, providing reassurance that the vaccination strategy for global influenza should proceed as planned during the COVID-19 pandemic.

89margd
set. 26, 2020, 5:12am

COVID-19 vaccines do not modify the human genome and do not involve hydrogels; Hydrogels are not internet-connecting devices
Pablo Rougerie

CLAIM
Hydrogels are part of the genome-modifying COVID-19 mRNA vaccines' delivery system. Hydrogels will connect you to the internet.

VERDICT: INCORRECT

SOURCE: Facebook user, Facebook, 16 Sep. 2020

DETAILS
Incorrect: The claim incorrectly alleges that mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines will modify the human genome, even though they cannot be integrated into the DNA-based genome. In addition, hydrogel-based sensors do not connect themselves to the internet.

Unsupported: The social media posts do not present supporting evidence for the claim that mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines will use hydrogels.

Misleading: The claim describes hydrogels as a recent groundbreaking invention, however, they were discovered decades ago and have been extensively used in biomaterial and biomedical research.

KEY TAKE AWAY
No evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccines will use hydrogels, which are polymers that swell without dissolving when in contact with water. Hydrogels are not a recent discovery; they have been publicly known and extensively used in biomedical research for decades. Hydrogels do not connect to the internet. Finally, mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19 cannot alter the human genome, which is made of DNA.

FULL CLAIM: Hydrogels are part of the genome-modifying COVID-19 mRNA vaccines' delivery system. Hydrogels will connect you to the internet.

REVIEW...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/covid-19-vaccines-do-not-modify-the-human...

90margd
oct. 1, 2020, 8:34am

See graph of worldwide polio deaths pre- and post-vaccine...

Our history is a battle against the microbes: we lost terribly before science, public health, and vaccines allowed us to protect ourselves
Max Roser | July 20, 2020

Humanity’s history is a continuous battle between us and the microbes. For most of our history we were on the losing side.

It wasn’t even close. We were losing very decisively. Billions of children died from infectious diseases. They were the main reason why child mortality was so high: No matter where or when they were born, around half died as children. We looked at the evidence of child mortality in pre-modern times here.

The recurring epidemics of influenza, measles, cholera, diphtheria, the bubonic plague, and smallpox also killed large parts of the adult population. Within just a few years the Black Death killed half of Europe’s population. The epidemics – especially of smallpox, but also measles, typhus and other diseases – that the colonialists brought from Europe with them to the Americas killed often an even larger share of the population in many places.

The world today is obviously very different. Infectious diseases are the cause of fewer than 1-in-6 deaths, and as the world made progress against the microbes our lives became much longer. Life expectancy doubled in every world region and the global average is now 73 years....

https://ourworldindata.org/microbes-battle-science-vaccines

91John5918
oct. 6, 2020, 12:18am

Measles in DR Congo: By air, boat and foot to deliver the vaccine (BBC)

For the past two years, the Democratic Republic of Congo has been grappling with the world's worst outbreak of measles, which has killed more than 7,000 children. The minister of health says the outbreak is over but experts say that with a relatively low rate of vaccination - just 60% - it is just a matter of time before there is another. Journalist Sara Assarsson and photographer Johannes Tegner meet the health workers going to great lengths delivering these vital but delicate supplies...

92margd
oct. 17, 2020, 10:10am

As US battles Covid-19, flu shot misinfo spreads
AFP |10/16/2020

...Misinformation on social media, particularly that a flu shot will increase the risk of contracting the coronavirus or cause you to test positive for Covid-19 -- it won't -- is undermining the public health message.

One false claim circulating on Facebook and Instagram said a flu shot would raise the probability of Covid-19 infection by 36 percent. Another on Instagram said Sanofi's flu vaccine Fluzone was 2.4 times more deadly than Covid-19.

...misinformation, including the belief that it is not effective...

...Aside from misinformation, measures aimed at curbing the spread of Covid-19 resulted in fewer in-person preventive medical visits, during which many receive the vaccine. And other flu shot clinics typically offered by employers, churches or schools have been on hold.

High unemployment due to the economic fallout of the pandemic has also left millions of Americans without health insurance, meaning states will need to pick up the vaccine cost for more patients.

While the effectiveness of the flu shot can vary depending on whether the strain of flu circulating in communities matches the strain in the vaccine, the CDC said it prevents millions of illnesses each year.

While social media platforms host misinformation, they also take actions to spread reliable guidance about vaccines.

This week, Facebook announced it would start directing US users to information about where they can get a flu shot, and promised to reject ads that discourage vaccination.

Prior to the pandemic, Twitter and Pinterest put in place policies to redirect searches of certain vaccine-related keywords to public health organizations.

...Adam Dunn, head of Biomedical Informatics and Digital Health at The University of Sydney, ...Methods developed to encourage user engagement on social media "could be used more judiciously to guide people to credible and evidence-based information," Dunn said. He also advocated for the creation of more "communities of pro-vaccine advocacy that are welcoming, honest, and aligned with a diversity of worldviews."

Libby Richards, associate professor at the Purdue School of Nursing, said that "a flu shot is more important than ever this year," cautioning that severe cases of Covid-19 and the flu require the same life saving equipment... take the time to fact-check information...

https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/as-us-battles-covid-19-flu-shot-misinfo-spread...

93margd
oct. 20, 2020, 8:57am

The pandemic is amplifying the U.S. anti-vaccine movement — and globalizing it
Emily Rauhala | Oct. 7, 2020

...vaccine hesitancy is mixing with coronavirus denial and merging with far-right American conspiracy theories, including QAnon, which claims that President Trump is secretly fighting a cabal of Satanist pedophiles embedded in the so-called “deep state.”

What’s emerging is a sprawling, international movement that opposes basic public health measures such as vaccines and masks, denies or downplays the reality of the pandemic, and is increasingly, though not always, linked to the politics of the far right.

It features American figures such as Robert F. Kennedy Jr., a prominent anti-vaccine campaigner, who in August addressed a massive rally in Berlin against coronavirus measures.

...A major turning point was the May 4 release of a conspiracy video, “Plandemic,” featuring a discredited American scientist with ties to the anti-vaccine movement. ( https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/05/07/plandemic-youtube-facebook-... )

...“Plandemic” ricocheted across the Internet, bouncing from anti-vaccine groups to anti-lockdown groups, spreading among “Make America Great Again” enthusiasts and conspiracy theorists, as well as seemingly apolitical neighborhood bulletin boards...it was watched millions of times before fact checks started circulating widely. By then, it was spreading in at least 10 languages.

...as the pandemic continues, these causes (vaccines, masks, 5G, Q-Anon, etc.) may continue to feed off one another online, invigorating hardcore communities and converting newcomers who happen to find conspiratorial, anti-vaccine content in their digital spaces...

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/coronaviurs-antivax-conspiracies/2020/10/06...

94John5918
nov. 6, 2020, 11:10pm

UN urges resumption of mass measles and polio vaccinations (Guardian)

Unicef and the World Health Organization have called for urgent action to prevent millions of avoidable child deaths from measles and polio by resuming mass vaccinations disrupted by the Covid-19 pandemic. They say that while there is no vaccine against the coronavirus yet, there are very effective immunisations against these two killer diseases, and children should not be left at risk...

95John5918
nov. 7, 2020, 10:58pm

Two children die, 30 ill after measles outbreak in South Sudan (The EastAfrican)

Two children have died of measles and 30 others are in critical condition in a Médecins Sans Frontiers (MSF) health facility in Pibor Administrative Area, South Sudan, the medical charity has said... “We believe measles is now widespread and getting out of control... The severity of the outbreak is being magnified by other illnesses like severe malaria, pneumonia and severe malnutrition"...

96John5918
nov. 13, 2020, 11:44pm

Vaccinating 1.5 million children to curb polio outbreak in South Sudan (WHO)

A campaign aiming at vaccinating 1.5 million children against polio was launched in South Sudan. Currently 15 cases of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis are confirmed in seven counties across five states... The reported cases are children under five years of age who now have irreversible paralysis. In order to stop the outbreak and prevent further spread, the Ministry of Health formed an emergency task force comprising of WHO, UNICEF and other partners to quickly make necessary arrangement for the response while increasing surveillance efforts respecting basic infectious prevention and control measures. The only way of stopping the spread and prevent more children from catching the potentially deadly virus is through immunization...

97margd
nov. 17, 2020, 7:22am

Although fetal cell lines are used to grow viruses for some COVID-19 vaccines, the cells are not part of the vaccines
Flora Teoh, editor

CLAIM
“CONFIRMED - aborted male fetus in COVID-19 vaccine”

VERDICT
INACCURATE

SOURCE: Anonymous, Facebook, 15 Nov. 2020

DETAILS
Inaccurate: Although fetal cell lines derived from elective abortions are used to grow viruses for making certain vaccines, the cells and most of their genetic material are removed during the purification process and are therefore not present in the vaccines.

KEY TAKE AWAY
Some vaccines require the production of viruses, which can only replicate with the help of living host cells. While certain viruses for vaccines, such as some COVID-19 vaccine candidates, are produced using human fetal cell lines, these cells and most of their genetic material are removed during the purification process and are therefore not present in the vaccine. Any residual DNA is also broken down into fragments during the purification process, which are harmless and do not affect our DNA.

FULL CLAIM: “CONFIRMED - aborted male fetus in COVID-19 vaccine”; the vaccine contains “aborted fetal tissue” and can change your DNA

REVIEW...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/although-fetal-cell-lines-are-used-to-gro...

98margd
nov. 29, 2020, 5:12am

No evidence that COVID-19 vaccines cause more severe disease; antibody-dependent enhancement has not been observed in clinical trials

...Unsupported

...A Facebook post claiming that the COVID-19 vaccine will lead to more severe disease, was published in November 2020 and went viral on the social media platform. Similar claims have also been published in other social media posts, like this one and this one. The claim is based on the observation of more severe disease occurring in individuals who received a dengue vaccine and a vaccine candidate for the respiratory syncytial virus. Both are likely due to a phenomenon known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), however ADE has not been shown to occur in individuals that received COVID-19 vaccines to date. One of the authors of these posts previously claimed to be a toxicologist, despite lacking the necessary training and credentials for that title...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/no-evidence-that-covid-19-vaccines-cause-...

99margd
des. 1, 2020, 8:11am

Covid-19 vaccines face a varied and powerful misinformation movement online
New research shows the bigger threat to public trust in a Covid-19 vaccine comes from smaller, better-connected Facebook groups.
Brandy Zadrozny | Nov. 30, 2020

...although membership in online anti-vaccination groups was smaller than in pro-vaccination groups, there were more of them, their messages were more diverse, emotive and often persuading, and they were better at spreading those messages outside their groups, meaning they were able to reach more people.*

...a forthcoming paper..., currently in review for publication, shows members of communities previously considered unrelated or “undecided” on vaccines — groups for pet lovers, parent school groups, yoga fans and foodies, for instance — are increasingly connecting with the anti-vaccination movement.

...While the anti-vaccination activists’ favored platform, Facebook, has taken a number of steps recently to limit the reach of anti-vaccine content, the movement has thrived during the pandemic — a success largely due to a pivot toward Covid-19 misinformation and a communication strategy that’s allowed the anti-vaccination message to circumvent platforms’ policy enforcement and reach users outside its network.

...A report by the London-based nonprofit organization Center for Countering Digital Hate found that the anti-vaccination movement gained about 8 million followers since 2019. Conspiracy theories about a coming Covid-19 vaccine have flooded social media, particularly on Instagram and Facebook, according to a new report from First Draft, a global nonprofit organization that researches online misinformation.

Such conspiracy theories (which purported the vaccine to be a clever cover for various forms of population control by a government “deep state,” private philanthropists or even Satan) weren’t limited to anti-vaccine fringe groups, First Draft reported, but were resonating with outside networks. Disparate communities including Libertarian, New Age, QAnon and anti-government groups, as well as more mainstream communities, seem to be uniting around the opposition to a coming Covid-19 vaccine.

The biggest pages banned by Facebook had already been preparing for a crackdown.

...An unknowable number of private groups remain, spaces that have been hubs for misinformation regarding Covid-19 and vaccines. These include the 224,000-member Vaccination Re-education Discussion Forum, a private anti-vaccination group exclusively focused on Covid-19 vaccines.

...new research shows the anti-vaccination movement has effectively used the pandemic to reach more than 100 million susceptible Facebook users, and seems to be winning the battle for hearts and minds.

..."The anti-vaccination network is all about passing on narratives, passing on stories, supporting each other, just like an insurgency," (Neil Johnson, a physicist at George Washington University who studies online extremism) said. "And just like an insurgency, it is embedded with the mainstream civilian population as it were. And that is their strength.”

https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/covid-19-vaccines-face-varied-powerful-mi...

--------------------------------------------------​

* Neil F. Johnson et al. The online competition between pro- and anti-vaccination views. Nature volume 582, pages230–233 ( May 13, 2020) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2281-1

Abstract
Distrust in scientific expertise...is dangerous. Opposition to vaccination with a future vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, the causal agent of COVID-19, for example, could amplify outbreaks..., as happened for measles in 2019... Homemade remedies... and falsehoods are being shared widely on the Internet, as well as dismissals of expert advice... There is a lack of understanding about how this distrust evolves at the system level1... Here we provide a map of the contention surrounding vaccines that has emerged from the global pool of around three billion Facebook users. Its core reveals a multi-sided landscape of unprecedented intricacy that involves nearly 100 million individuals partitioned into highly dynamic, interconnected clusters across cities, countries, continents and languages. Although smaller in overall size, anti-vaccination clusters manage to become highly entangled with undecided clusters in the main online network, whereas pro-vaccination clusters are more peripheral. Our theoretical framework reproduces the recent explosive growth in anti-vaccination views, and predicts that these views will dominate in a decade. Insights provided by this framework can inform new policies and approaches to interrupt this shift to negative views. Our results challenge the conventional thinking about undecided individuals in issues of contention surrounding health, shed light on other issues of contention such as climate change..., and highlight the key role of network cluster dynamics in multi-species ecologies...

100margd
des. 1, 2020, 10:14am

Experts refute false claim that Covid-19 vaccine can 'manipulate' human genes
Taylor Thompson Fuller, AFP | 01 December 2020

https://factcheck.afp.com/experts-refute-false-claim-covid-19-vaccine-can-manipu...

101margd
des. 2, 2020, 4:03pm

Coronavirus vaccines: health experts identify ways to build public trust
Ann Christiano and Jack J Berry | November 24, 2020

...16 social and behavioral psychologists, medical anthropologists, behavioral economists, neuroscientists and political communications scholars...over five days. We asked questions like: What makes people resilient against misinformation? What drives vaccine hesitancy? Which frames will be most effective? What kinds of message strategies have been effective with specific communities? And finally, what are some of the best ways to make taking the vaccine a social norm?

Eight principles emerged from those conversations that we believe can increase trust, acceptance and demand for vaccination. We have shared these principles with the leaders across the U.N. as part of their global efforts to reduce vaccine hesitancy and overcome misinformation related to COVID-19.

1. Work within worldviews, identities and moral values. Each of us has a unique set of identities, worldviews and moral values that influence our choices and behaviors, and even what we believe to be true. It’s worthwhile to understand what others see as right and wrong and to connect with what’s most important to them. Find the common ground between what you hope to achieve and what matters to them. For example, taking a vaccine, then, would become a way to return to activities and behaviors that matter most to them.

2. Use timing to the best advantage. It’s far easier to build trust when you’re the first to articulate a message. People are most likely to trust – and stick to – the version of information they hear first. It’s equally important, however, that they hear that same message multiple times from an array of sources.

3. Use the right messengers for the audience. People act when they trust the messenger, the message and their motivations. Trusted messengers vary greatly from community to community, but there are some broad lessons you can apply. Ideally, the messenger is someone with deep expertise: a doctor, a scientist or a public health practitioner. But trusted messengers are also those in our “in-groups,” people we see as being like us and who share our values. As behavioral economist David Fetherstonhaugh put it, “I couldn’t stress enough the importance of a message coming from within an in-group — someone that’s automatically on the inside. It’s almost like such messages even bypass deliberate cognition because they are coming from a trusted source: ‘They’re my family, or it’s my pastor, or it’s my party leader.’ So the source of a message, in-group vs. out-group, is extraordinarily important for how a message is received.”

4. Make the content concrete, supply a narrative and provide value. If messages aren’t concrete and don’t include stories, our powerful sense-making brains will fill the abstraction with stories and ideas that make sense to us. One particular space to build that narrative is around vaccine trials. Instead of saying “we’re in stage 3,” name the number of people who have participated in successful trials and share stories of individuals who participated in those trials.

5. Recognize that communities have different relationships with vaccination. In some societies, people may be fearful of vaccines, but have a strong trust in authority. In others, mandatory vaccinations have created distrust of government authorities. In others, decades of mistreatment and exploitation have resulted in a profound lack of trust in new medical treatments. Different societies also have different relationships with authority. In societies where people trust authority, they’re more likely to accept direction even if they don’t support it.

6. Reinforce positive behaviors. We are deeply affected by the behavior and choices of people in our networks – even people we may not have met. So to change behavior, you have to shift people’s perceptions of what normal behavior looks like. Examining vaccine hesitancy through the lens of social norms offers two opportunities to make a difference. The first is activating trusted influencers within social networks and people’s perceptions of what others are doing. The second is in shifting the communications norms among those communicating on behalf of the vaccine.

7. Evoke the right emotions. It’s tempting to activate emotions like fear or shame to get people to take a vaccine, but it’s unlikely to work. Fear immobilizes people, and shame is likely to achieve the wrong reaction. Look to more constructive emotions like awe, hope and parental love to get people to act.

8. Be explicit and transparent about motivations. Our perceptions of the motivations of the messenger matters. Our motivations in seeking information are equally important. We’re less likely to trust a vaccine if we question the motives of the people advocating for us to take it...

https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-vaccines-health-experts-identify-ways-to...

102margd
des. 5, 2020, 7:26am

Anti-Vax Ideas Have Metastasized in 2020 (14:20)
Brandy Zadrozny | Hosted by Bob Garfield, On the Media, WNYC Studios | December 4, 2020

To understand how to combat anti-vaccination sentiment, we have to understand how the misinformation virus spreads. And to understand that, we have to first know where it has resided from birth. Brandy Zadrozny, an investigative reporter at NBC News covering misinformation online, has spent years tracking the contagion. This week, Zadrozny explains to Bob how what began with a debunked study has spread all across Facebook — and why the social media company's efforts to shut down major anti-vaccine pages might be too little, too late.

https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/otm/segments/anti-vax-metastasized-on-the-m...
--------------------------------------------------​

A Pastor's Plight to Address Vaccine Skepticism in Black Communities (9:24)
Fr. Father Paul Abernathy | Hosted by Bob Garfield, On the Media, WNYC Studios | December 4, 2020

A Pew study conducted this fall found that only 32 percent of Black Americans are likely to take a coronavirus vaccine, compared to about half of white people. The reasons are manifold: a legacy of exploitation of Black people in medical trials, predating and continuing after the horrors of the Tuskegee Study; medical racism; mistrust in government; and more. In Pittsburgh, Father Paul Abernathy is working to address vaccine skepticism in predominantly Black neighborhoods, focusing on earning trust by sharing information, meeting people where they are, and recruiting people to participate in vaccine trials. He tells Bob how community engagement will be critical to the rollout of a vaccine, and explains how his nonprofit works with researchers to convince skeptics.

https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/otm/segments/pastors-plight-address-vaccine...
--------------------------------------------------​

How to Earn Trust in a Coronavirus Vaccine (15:25)
Michael Kinch & Matt Motta | Hosted by Bob Garfield, On the Media, WNYC Studios | December 4, 2020

The great news is that there are multiple vaccines headed our way. At least two vaccines undergoing review — Moderna and Pfizer — have efficacy rates above 90 percent, which is stunning compared to, say, the 2019–2020 flu vaccine, which had an efficacy of just 45 percent. But the vaccine still needs to be approved, delivered, and administered to 300-or-so million Americans. And those Americans have to be willing to take the vaccine in order for the country to achieve "herd immunity" and curb COVID-19 in a meaningful way.

This week, Bob talks to Michael Kinch, author of Between Hope and Fear: A History of Vaccines and Human Immunity, about rollouts of mass vaccinations dating back hundreds of years. He also interviews Matt Motta, assistant professor of political science at Oklahoma State University, who specializes in science communication. Motta tells us who current vaccine skeptics are, and how we can reach them.

https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/otm/segments/how-earn-trust-coronavirus-vac...

__________________________________________________​

Th(ese are) segment(s) from our December 4, 2020 program, A Dose Of Reality.
https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/otm/segments

103Aimee01
des. 5, 2020, 7:54am

S'ha suprimit aquest usuari en ser considerat brossa.

104margd
des. 8, 2020, 8:26am

By targetting the stalk of the viral hemagglutinin protein, looks like virologists have uncovered key to universal flu vaccine.
Hit and miss approach of seasonal flu vaccines may give way to a much more effective universal vaccine:

Florian Krammer (virologist Icahn) @florian_krammer | 11:52 AM · Dec 7, 2020:
1) Finally this (is) out. It took a few years of my life to get this into clinical trials (with the help of many others). A first step towards the clinical development of universal influenza virus vaccines. With Adolfo Garcia-Sastre, Peter Palese.

A chimeric hemagglutinin-based universal influenza virus vaccine approach induces broad and...*
nature.com

2) This could potentially be a way to replace the seasonal flu vaccine and to be much better prepared for future flu pandemics. With funding from @gatesfoundation @ceirsinfluenza NIAID CIVICs @PATHtweets and help from many many awesome colleagues including Raffael Nachbagauer.

3) By the way, here are people who are on Twitter and contributed to this over the years...
- that's just the ones on twitter
--------------------------------------------------​

* Raffael Nachbagauer,…Florian Krammer. 202o A chimeric hemagglutinin-based universal influenza virus vaccine approach induces broad and long-lasting immunity in a randomized, placebo-controlled phase I trial. Nature Medicine (Dec 7, 2020)
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1118-7

Abstract
Seasonal influenza viruses constantly change through antigenic drift and the emergence of pandemic influenza viruses through antigenic shift is unpredictable. Conventional influenza virus vaccines induce strain-specific neutralizing antibodies against the variable immunodominant globular head domain of the viral hemagglutinin protein. This necessitates frequent re-formulation of vaccines and handicaps pandemic preparedness. In this completed, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I trial (NCT03300050), safety and immunogenicity of chimeric hemagglutinin-based vaccines were tested in healthy, 18–39-year-old US adults. The study aimed to test the safety and ability of the vaccines to elicit broadly cross-reactive antibodies against the hemagglutinin stalk domain. Participants were enrolled into five groups to receive vaccinations with live-attenuated followed by AS03-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine (n = 20), live-attenuated followed by inactivated vaccine (n = 15), twice AS03-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine (n = 16) or placebo (n = 5, intranasal followed by intramuscular; n = 10, twice intramuscular) 3 months apart. Vaccination was found to be safe and induced a broad, strong, durable and functional immune response targeting the conserved, immunosubdominant stalk of the hemagglutinin. The results suggest that chimeric hemagglutinins have the potential to be developed as universal vaccines that protect broadly against influenza viruses.

105margd
des. 11, 2020, 8:57am

COVID-19 vaccine candidates show high efficacy and a safe profile in clinical trials, contrary to claims in viral video
Iria Carballo-Carbajal

CLAIM
“The COVID-19 pandemic is not a real medical pandemic”; “The COVID-19 vaccine is not proven safe or effective”

VERDICT
INACCURATE

SOURCE: World Doctors Alliance, BrandNewTube, 7 Dec. 2020

DETAILS
Factually Inaccurate: As a disease that has caused millions of infections and 1.5 million deaths in all countries and continents, COVID-19 qualifies as a “pandemic.”

Inaccurate: Results from clinical trials demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccine candidates are generally safe, including those using RNA technology. RNA from vaccines cannot integrate into our DNA nor persist long enough in the cell to cause autoimmune or other chronic diseases.

Unsupported: Although antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a potential side effect of a COVID-19 vaccine, no study has reported increased COVID-19 severity in vaccinated animals or humans.

KEY TAKE AWAY
COVID-19 vaccine candidates must pass the same safety standards as any other candidate to demonstrate their efficacy and safety before approval and public use. However, the pandemic situation has removed many of the usual handicaps that such trials face, including funding, recruitment, or bureaucratic red tape, which resulted in faster completion of safety tests. Phase 3 trial’s data from tens of thousands of participants show that COVID-19 vaccine candidates efficiently prevent the infection and are generally safe...

...In summary, COVID-19 is a pandemic that has spread to every continent and country, causing millions of infections and deaths worldwide, contrary to what the BrandNewTube video participants claim. Vaccine candidates, including those for COVID-19, must pass several stages of clinical trials to demonstrate a high level of safety and efficacy before being approved for public use, whether fully or emergency use. Clinical trials in thousands of people show that COVID-19 vaccine candidates prevent viral infection with high efficacy and are generally safe, including those using RNA technology. Therefore, the claim that a COVID-19 vaccine is not effective or can cause autoimmunity, infertility, ADE, or chronic diseases is unsupported.

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/covid-19-vaccine-candidates-show-high-eff...

106margd
des. 16, 2020, 3:52am

Image--clinical-trials infographic ( https://twitter.com/ScienceMagazine/status/1339125636779151360/photo/1 )

David M. Knipe et al. 2020. Ensuring vaccine safety (perspective). Science 11 Dec 2020: Vol. 370, Issue 6522, pp. 1274-1275
DOI: 10.1126/science.abf0357 https://science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6522/1274

...There is an urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines and exciting progress to that end, but there remains a critical public health obligation to conduct rigorous evaluation to ensure safety as well as efficacy. Vaccines remain one of the most successful biomedical tools for prevention of disease. The urgent need for COVID-19 vaccines must be balanced with the imperative of ensuring safety and public confidence in vaccines by following the established clinical safety testing protocols throughout vaccine development, including both pre- and postdeployment.

107margd
des. 16, 2020, 4:56am

Pressure won't help build vaccine trust: OPINION
Transparency, patience and vigilance are the best Rx to improve uptake.
Richard Besser | December 13, 2020

...Today is a time to listen rather than preach, and at this critical moment, it’s a time to act. The solutions must come from within each community, and the messengers must be that community’s trusted voices including faith leaders, medical practitioners and community organizers. Congress must provide additional funding to fiscally-strapped states and localities to ensure they can deploy not just the vaccines themselves, but provide outreach and communications support to trusted community groups to help build trust in the pandemic’s hardest-hit places.

...As I learned back in my San Diego pediatrician’s clinic nearly 30 years ago, sometimes one of the greatest tools of a public health practitioner is the willingness to listen. A vaccination campaign that meets people where they are, hears their concerns and values their too-often painful history -- an effort that listens -- is what our nation needs today.

https://abcnews.go.com/Health/pressure-build-vaccine-trust-opinion/story?id=7462...

108JamesSanders
des. 16, 2020, 5:58am

S'ha suprimit aquest usuari en ser considerat brossa.

109margd
des. 17, 2020, 2:53am

No, chip on COVID-19 vaccine syringes would not be injected or track people
Bill McCarthy | December 15, 2020

A video circulating on social media wrongly claims that some COVID-19 vaccines could include microchips to let government officials track patients. That’s inaccurate.

COVID-19 vaccines do not include microchips for tracking patients.

A medical technology company has been producing prefilled syringes for coronavirus vaccines. The syringes can include an optional chip on the label — not inside the injected dose itself — that would show if a particular dose is expired or counterfeit.

The chips would not be injected with the vaccine, nor would they gather information on patients or allow their locations to be tracked...

https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/dec/15/facebook-posts/no-chip-covid-1...

110John5918
des. 17, 2020, 3:29am

>109 margd:

I want to say it's unbelieveable the sort of fake news that is going around, about injecting microchips into people along with the vaccine. Good grief. But sadly some (many?) people do believe it. What a world we live in.

1112wonderY
des. 17, 2020, 3:42am

>109 margd: Stephen Colbert made the observation that the tracking device is already in place with the phones that are welded to our hands.

112margd
des. 17, 2020, 3:57am

>111 2wonderY: And our cars! Even if you didn't buy package, there's some kind of black box in most vehicles that the car's manufacturer can access in case of accident (to assess their liability)? I remember being startled when my vehicle correctly reported me in the middle of the St Lawrence R--on a ferry!

113John5918
Editat: des. 17, 2020, 4:11am

>112 margd:

That's one of the advantages of driving a 21 year old Land Rover. No fancy black boxes!

114margd
Editat: des. 23, 2020, 9:04am

Flurry of fact checks as COVID-19 vaccines are rolled out:

No, the new coronavirus vaccines are not more dangerous than COVID-19
Samantha Putterman | December 18, 2020
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/dec/18/facebook-posts/no-new-coronavi...

Nurse’s collapse does not mean Covid-19 vaccines are unsafe
AFP | Friday 18 December 2020
https://factcheck.afp.com/nurses-collapse-does-not-mean-covid-19-vaccines-are-un...

Anti-Vaccine Posts Use Deceptively Edited Video Clip
Saranac Hale Spencer | December 18, 2020
https://www.factcheck.org/2020/12/anti-vaccine-posts-use-deceptively-edited-vide...

Fact Check: Is Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine Not Halal, as Viral Video Claims?
Basit Mahmood | 12/18/20
https://www.newsweek.com/fact-check-pfizer-covid-19-vaccine-halal-1555998

Social media posts inaccurately compare Covid-19 vaccines to 1950s-era drug
Manon Jacob | 18 December 2020
https://factcheck.afp.com/social-media-posts-inaccurately-compare-covid-19-vacci...

115margd
Editat: des. 23, 2020, 9:09am

>114 margd: Contd--flurry of fact checks as COVID-19 vaccines are rolled out:

Fact Check: Nurse Receiving Coronavirus Vaccine Has Not Died As Claimed By Many Social Media Users
The Logical Indian Crew India | 22 Dec 2020
https://thelogicalindian.com/fact-check/coronavirus-vaccine-25616

Viral tweet cites made-up CDC ‘COVID-19 survival rates’ to downplay vaccine
Bill McCarthy | December 22, 2020
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has not released “COVID-19 survival rates,” an agency spokesperson said, and it doesn’t have the data to do so.
...False
https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/dec/22/tweets/viral-tweet-cites-made-...

Nancy Pelosi did not fake Covid-19 vaccination with capped needle
AFP USA | 21 December 2020
https://factcheck.afp.com/nancy-pelosi-did-not-fake-covid-19-vaccination-capped-...

116rastaphrog
des. 23, 2020, 10:31am

>114 margd: In regards to the nurse from Tennessee, you'd think she'd have passed on getting the shot on TV if she had a history of passing out from pain.

117margd
gen. 1, 9:03am

A Nashville nurse did not develop Bell’s Palsy after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine
Daniel Funke | December 30, 2020

The Tennessee Department of Health has no record of any licensed nurses who go by the name given in a viral video.
There is no evidence of a direct link between the coronavirus vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech and Bell’s Palsy...

https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/dec/30/youtube-videos/nashville-nurse...

118margd
gen. 5, 10:56am

Not Sure About the COVID-19 Vaccine? Get the Facts, Then Decide
Kara Gavin | December 23, 2020

Heard a claim about the vaccines? Check here before sharing or acting on the information.

Speed of vaccine development
Vaccines and your DNA
Vaccine side effects
What’s in a COVID vaccine
Pregnancy & fertility
Worries about specific groups
Mutations
Immune system

https://healthblog.uofmhealth.org/wellness-prevention/not-sure-about-covid-19-va...

120margd
Editat: gen. 18, 9:29am

SO important that concerned moms reaching out not be brushed off or MD/RN-splained, IMHO.

Radio story (below) captures what I'm seeing:
concerned mother brushed off by healthcare worker,
finds 'answers' in anti-vax community (online, wellness centers),
paralyzed by anxiety--easier to not vax,
anti-vax movement is metasticizing, e.g., strong influence in petcare group I follow,
pandemic creating some pushback among vaccine-hesitants inspired to dig deeper into info = opportunity!

How Anti-Vaccine Movement Could Hurt Efforts To End Pandemic
Rachel Martin | January 18, 20215:04 AM ET
Heard on Morning Edition | 11-Minute Listen

The anti-vaccine movement has existed in various forms for decades. The Internet and social media created a surge in misinformation. We profile a mother who got pulled in, and how she got out.

https://www.npr.org/2021/01/18/957981974/how-anti-vaccine-movement-could-hurt-ef...

121margd
gen. 19, 5:29pm

VAERS reports alone don’t demonstrate that the COVID-19 vaccines caused adverse events; evidence does not indicate vaccines caused Bell’s palsy and deaths
Flora Teoh

CLAIM
“Thousands of COVID Vaccine Injuries and 13 U.S. Deaths Reported in December Alone”; “In December, 3,916 COVID vaccine-related adverse events, including 13 deaths, were reported to VAERS”
SOURCE: Anonymous, Children's Health Defense, 14 Jan. 2021

VERDICT: UNSUPPORTED

DETAILS
Inadequate support: The 3,916 adverse events attributed to the COVID-19 vaccines are based on the number of reports made in the U.S. Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). However, while VAERS records adverse events occurring after vaccination, it does not demonstrate a causal relationship between a vaccine and adverse events.

Misleading: The article cites instances of adverse events like Bell’s palsy and death occurring post-vaccination as “vaccine injuries”, implying that the vaccines caused these events (the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy). However, simply because an event occurred after vaccination does not mean that vaccination caused the event. Furthermore, some of the events cited have already been established as unrelated to the vaccine or are of dubious origin.

KEY TAKE AWAY
Both COVID-19 vaccines approved for emergency use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration were thoroughly reviewed for safety and efficacy before approval. The U.S. Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) enables the public and healthcare providers to report adverse events that occur after vaccination. It serves as an early warning system for potential problems with vaccines. However, determining whether there is a causal link requires further investigation into these reports. VAERS data only tells us that an adverse event occurred after vaccination; on its own it cannot prove that vaccines caused the adverse event.

REVIEW...

Conclusion

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/vaers-reports-alone-dont-demonstrate-that...

122margd
gen. 27, 9:40am

Fact check: Not likely that COVID-19 vaccine was cause of Hank Aaron's death
Miriam Fauzia | Jan 26, 2021

Hall of Famer Henry "Hank" Aaron (86) died at his home in Atlanta on Jan. 22. ...

A Jan. 22 article published by The Defender, an outlet of Robert F. Kennedy Jr.'s Children's Health Defense, intimates a connection between Aaron's death and the vaccine that he received Jan. 5 alongside other civil and human rights leaders at the Morehouse Healthcare Clinic, part of the Morehouse School of Medicine...

In the wake of Aaron's death, Morehouse released a statement to CBS Alabama affiliate CBS 42 on Jan. 25, affirming the former athlete's death was unrelated to the COVID-19 vaccine...

The Fulton County Medical Examiner's office confirmed with NBC Atlanta affiliate 11 Alive that there was no evidence the COVID-19 vaccine caused Aaron's death. ...

11 Alive also spoke to former Atlanta Mayor and U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young, who received the vaccine with Aaron (Jan. 5 in Atlanta); veteran broadcasting executive Xernona Clayton and former Secretary of Health and Human Services Dr. Louis Sullivan. Young recounted that a conversation with Aaron's driver did not reveal any alarming indicators.
Baseball legend Hank Aaron receives a COVID-19 vaccination on Jan. 5 in Atlanta...

Aaron, however, did suffer from arthritis, had a partial hip replacement after a fall in 2014 and used a wheelchair during his vaccination. Young, Clayton and Sullivan — age 88, 90 and 87 — have said they did not experience any severe vaccine reactions...

Dr. Peter Hotez, a vaccine scientist and dean for the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine, weighed in on Jan. 22 tweeting, "There is zero evidence a #COVID19 vaccination contributed to the death of Henry Aaron."

The next day, Atlanta Mayor Keisha Lance Bottoms also tweeted, "He passed in his sleep, the same way my dad died nearly 30 yrs ago. I share that because the vaccine won't stop ALL death, but it will go a long way in preventing deaths from coronavirus, which is disproportionately impacting minority communities."

As The Defender notes, Aaron's passing follows reports of elderly deaths in Europe. The 33 fatalities in Norway among nursing home residents, ages 75 and over, was investigated by the Norwegian Medicines Agency and the World Health Organization, the latter of which ruled the deaths "in line with the expected, all-cause mortality rates and causes of death in the sub-population of frail, elderly individuals."

In Germany, the "seven cases of elderly people dying shortly after vaccination" were evaluated by the Paul Ehrlich Institute, which concluded most probably died due to preexisting illnesses including carcinomas, kidney deficiencies and Alzheimer's disease, and not vaccination....

Dr. Michael Osterholm, epidemiologist and director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy at the University of Minnesota, stated the phenomenon of elderly deaths after vaccination is not unexpected.

"If you look at heart attacks in the United States and you look at the incidence per 10 million people getting vaccinated... which is roughly the number we have vaccinated in the U.S., in that age group from 55 to 64, you would expect to see 793 individuals die from a heart attack in that week following vaccination, just by chance alone, if vaccination never occurred...So imagine, just on a daily basis, it wouldn’t be surprising to find adverse health outcomes occur associated with the vaccine by time, but not associated by actual cause-and-effect."

Osterholm cautioned more reports of seemingly causal events as vaccination efforts proceed will continue to surface but that public health experts would also keep a close eye on the deployment of the vaccine.

"To date we’ve seen nothing that supports that these vaccines, other than the reaction you have at the time of the vaccination or... after the first 24 to 36 hours which during that time you can feel a little rough, particularly after your second dose of vaccine, but beyond that we’ve not seen anything yet that supports these vaccines have any adverse health outcomes," he said.

We rate this claim MISSING CONTEXT because without additional context it might be misleading. Former Braves baseball player and Hall of Famer Hank Aaron died on Jan. 22, almost three weeks after receiving a COVID-19 vaccination. His death has been declared due to natural causes and unrelated to his earlier inoculation. Reports of elderly deaths following vaccination in Norway and Germany do not implicate the vaccine, as those are most likely due to frailty with old age, terminal illness or other underlying conditions. Aside from reactions such as allergies, occurring the day of or within a few days of vaccination, there is no evidence to suggest that adverse vaccine health outcomes, like death amongst the elderly, are occurring at an unusual frequency compared to what would normally occur in the absence of vaccination...

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/factcheck/2021/01/26/fact-check-hank-aaron-d...

123mamzel
gen. 27, 3:36pm

To sully Aaron's death with such unfounded nonsense is further proof that some people should have their hands slapped when they consider posting something. I'm sure most of us saw that and dismissed it with the scorn it deserved.

124margd
Editat: gen. 30, 3:50am

COVID-19 vaccines currently in use stimulate immunity to the same degree as natural infection without exposing the vaccinated person to the risks associated with the disease
Iria Carballo-Carbajal, Science Editor, Healthfeedback.org

CLAIM
“Merck Scraps COVID Vaccines; Says It’s More Effective To Get The Virus And Recover”

VERDICT: MISLEADING

SOURCE: Steve Watson, Summit News, 26 Jan. 2021

DETAILS
Misleading: Merck stopped COVID-19 vaccine development due to the poor efficacy of its vaccine candidates. The company didn’t say that getting infected with the virus that causes COVID-19 is more effective than getting vaccinated against it. The claim fails to consider the significant risks associated with COVID-19 infections, including death and potential long-term health effects in survivors, such as heart and lung damage or neurological issues.

KEY TAKE AWAY
Vaccination stimulates the development of immunological memory and protects individuals from infectious diseases in the same way that natural infection does. However, vaccination is safer than natural infection because it doesn’t expose the person to the risks associated with the disease. COVID-19 poses serious health risks to infected individuals that can lead to potential long-term health effects or death. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccines are an important tool to minimize complications from the disease.

...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/covid-19-vaccines-currently-in-use-stimul...

125margd
feb. 1, 9:36am

Anti-Vaxxers Won’t Stop Harassing Nurse They’re Convinced Is Dead
Emily Shugerman | Feb. 01, 2021

For weeks now, commenters have flooded Tennessee nurse Tiffany Dover’s Facebook wall with messages of tribute, praising her kindness and beauty and offering their condolences for her loss.

...According to all official sources, she is alive and well and working as a nurse at CHI Memorial Hospital in Chattanooga. Last week, she was pictured on the front of the local newspaper caring for a north Georgia police chief who had been in the hospital for nearly 100 days.

Dover is not the victim of some medical mishap, as her mourners allege, but of a massive global conspiracy theory that has united anti-vaxxers and COVID skeptics in a dangerous attempt to prove themselves right.

...in mid-December,...Dover can be seen getting the injection in her left arm, her deep-set blue eyes shining over the top of her surgical mask. A few minutes later, she stands to take questions from reporters, then stops and puts her hand to her head. She tells reporters she feels dizzy. Then she sinks slowly to her knees. Two other employees rush to her side to catch her before she hits the ground.

Minutes later, Dover is back on her feet, telling television cameras that she suffers from a medical condition that makes her prone to fainting. “I have a history of having an overactive vagal response, and so with that if I have pain from anything—hangnail or if I stub my toe—I can just pass out,” she said.

It was a dramatic moment with a simple explanation: a common and largely benign medical condition that affects some 20 percent of the population. But for vaccine skeptics, it was all they needed to construct a vast conspiracy—and incite a targeted harassment campaign that shows no signs of stopping...

https://www.thedailybeast.com/anti-vaxxers-wont-stop-harassing-tiffany-dover-nur...

126margd
feb. 4, 8:05am

MeidasTouch.com @MeidasTouch | 9:01 PM · Feb 3, 2021

Shutting down vaccination sites isn’t protesting.
It’s biological warfare brought to you by the terrorist GOP.

New from the MeidasTouch Podcast (with guest Michael Cohen).
Anti-Vaxxers Shut Down Dodger Stadium Vaccine Site...

1:12 ( https://twitter.com/MeidasTouch/status/1357147220139626496 )

127margd
feb. 11, 10:39am

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. is barred from Instagram over false coronavirus claims.
Jennifer Jett | Feb. 11, 2021

Instagram took down the account of Robert F. Kennedy Jr., the political scion and prominent anti-vaccine activist, on Wednesday over false information related to the coronavirus.

“We removed this account for repeatedly sharing debunked claims about the coronavirus or vaccines,” Facebook, which owns Instagram, said in a statement.

Mr. Kennedy, the son of the former senator and U.S. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, worked for decades as an environmental lawyer but is now better known as an anti-vaccine crusader. A 2019 study found that two groups including his nonprofit, now called Children’s Health Defense, had funded more than half of Facebook advertisements spreading misinformation about vaccines.

He has found an even broader audience during the pandemic on platforms like Instagram, where he had 800,000 followers. Though Mr. Kennedy has said he is not opposed to vaccines as long as they are safe, he regularly endorses discredited links between vaccines and autism and has argued that it is safer to contract the coronavirus than to be inoculated against it.

Facebook is becoming more aggressive in its efforts to stamp out vaccine misinformation, saying this week that it would remove posts with erroneous claims about the coronavirus, coronavirus vaccines and vaccines in general, whether they are paid advertisements or user-generated posts. In addition to Mr. Kennedy’s Instagram account, the company said it had removed eight other Instagram accounts and Facebook pages on Wednesday under its updated policies.

...Mr. Kennedy’s Facebook page, which was still active as of early Thursday and makes many of the same baseless claims to more than 300,000 followers. The company said it did not automatically disable accounts across its platforms and that there were no plans to take down Mr. Kennedy’s Facebook account “at this time.”...

https://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/11/us/robert-f-kennedy-jr-instagram-covid-vaccin...

128margd
feb. 15, 1:01pm

I work in a nursing home. Here’s why my colleagues are skipping the vaccine.
Asif Merchant* | Feb. 12, 2021

...When you talk to people, when you take them seriously, you can change their minds. I really believe that. I have to believe it.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/outlook/nursing-home-skip-vaccine/2021/02/12/4d31...

* Asif Merchant is a geriatrician and associate clinical professor at Tufts University School of Medicine. He serves on the COVID-19 Vaccine Advisory Group for the governor of Massachusetts.

129margd
feb. 18, 10:22am

Misleading to compare the safety of COVID-19 and flu vaccines based solely on VAERS reports;
VAERS reports alone cannot demonstrate that a vaccine caused an adverse event

CLAIM
One person is 300 to 900 times “more likely to die” after getting the COVID-19 vaccine than the flu vaccine; “Adverse events are widely underreported”

VERDICT: MISLEADING

SOURCE: Alex Berenson, Instagram, Twitter, 14 Feb. 2021

DETAILS
Misleading: The U.S. Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) records adverse events occurring after vaccination. However, VAERS reports alone cannot demonstrate that a vaccine caused the adverse event nor whether one vaccine is safer than another.
Inadequate support: Careful investigation found no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines caused or contributed to any of the deaths reported to VAERS.

KEY TAKE AWAY
BioNTech/Pfizer and ModernaBoth COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a high level of safety and efficacy during clinical trials in order to receive emergency use authorization by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Extensive post-approval monitoring also indicates that the vaccines are safe. Apart from severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis), the data so far doesn’t indicate that the vaccines cause severe side effects in the general population. The U.S. Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) is an important tool for monitoring vaccine safety, but VAERS reports alone don’t demonstrate that a vaccine caused the adverse event. Further investigation of reported deaths found no causal link with COVID-19 vaccines.

FULL CLAIM: One person is 300 to 900 times “more likely to die” after getting the COVID-19 vaccine than the flu vaccine; “Adverse events are widely underreported”

REVIEW...

https://healthfeedback.org/claimreview/misleading-to-compare-the-safety-of-covid...

130margd
feb. 22, 12:25pm

False claims tying coronavirus vaccines to infertility drive doubts among women of childbearing age
Ariana Eunjung Cha | Feb. 22, 2021

https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/2021/02/22/women-vaccine-infertility-disin...

131margd
feb. 24, 3:15pm

Melinda C Mills and Jonas Sivelä. 2021. Should spreading anti-vaccine misinformation be criminalised?
BMJ 2021;372:n272. (Published 17 February 2021) doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n272 https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n272

The spread of false health information casts a shadow over required vaccine coverage. Melinda Mills says that we must, reluctantly, consider criminalising people who deliberately spread false information—but Jonas Sivelä argues that the definitions are too murky and that criminalisation may do more harm than good

Yes—Melinda Mills
The many faces of false information
Criminalisation and knowledge voids

No—Jonas Sivelä
Murky waters
More harm than good?

Biographies
Melinda Mills is a professor of demography and sociology at the University of Oxford and director of the Leverhulme Centre for Demographic Science. She is on the UK Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies’ Scientific Pandemic Insights Group on Behaviour (SPI-B) and Ethnicity subgroups and its Vaccines Science Coordination Group, the Royal Society’s Science in Emergency Tasking COVID-19 (SET-C) group, and the High Level Advisory Group for the European Commissioner for the Economy.

Jonas Sivelä is a senior researcher at the Unit for Infectious Disease Control and Vaccinations at the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL). He currently leads the work package on vaccine hesitancy and uptake in the ongoing EU Joint Action on Vaccination, is co-principal investigator of the Academy of Finland project Reconstructing Crisis Narratives for Trustworthy Communication and Cooperative Agency, as well as managing other research projects related to vaccine acceptance and crisis communications. Before joining THL he conducted ethnographic research about AIDS related myths and misconceptions in South Africa. He also has a long work experience in communications, media intelligence, journalism, and marketing.