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Investigació sobre l'enteniment humà (1748)

de David Hume

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Published in 1748, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is Scottish empiricist philosopher David Hume's distillation of his mature philosophy. Addressing themes including the limits of human understanding, the compatibility of free will with determinism, weaknesses in the foundations of religion, and the appeal of skepticism, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is Hume's attempt to revise and clarify the ideas of his earlier A Treatise of Human Nature. A major work in the empiricist school of thought that included John Locke and George Berkeley, Hume's work influenced such later authors as Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, and Jeremy Bentham. Controversial and widely debated since its publication, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a classic of empiricist philosophy whose questions remain as relevant today as ever.… (més)
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Considere-se algumas citações de Hume: “Nunca devemos repousar a menor confiança no testemunho humano”, ou “é um milagre que um morto volte à vida porque isso nunca foi observado em nenhuma era ou país.¨ Hume sempre aparece quando no diálogo sobre o entendimento humano há desentendimento entre cristãos e ateus. Seu nome pode nem aparecer na conversa, mas a sua prova comprobatória parece estar implícita. E qual seria a prova segundo Hume? A negação absoluta de milagres e até de milagres atestados por testemunhas. Mas nem o próprio Hume passaria no teste, se seus critérios fossem aplicados a si mesmo, porque ninguém pode dar 100% de provas, seja ateu seja cristão. Ao questionar milagres como a história da ressurreição de Cristo, não é necessário termos 100% de provas. Então, por que ateus parecem adorar Hume? Creio que alguns simplesmente não têm evidências para corroborar o seu ponto de vista quanto à não-existência de Deus. Mas muitos rejeitam o cristianismo por não quererem-se submeter. Hume diz que nossas idéias gerais não têm valor cognitivo porque são apenas aglomerados fortuitos de sensações corporais. Em nenhum instante ele se dá conta de que a filosofia de Hume, compondo-se ela própria de idéias gerais assim formadas, também não pode valer grande coisa. Quando um ateu forma opinião por causa formada por causa da evidência humeana, já deixou de ser ateu para ¨adorar¨ o divino filósofo. ( )
  jgcorrea | Jun 1, 2022 |
ملخص موجز لفلسفة هيوم المبنية على التجريب العملي والشك، وهو أكثر النصوص تأثيراً في الفترة المبكرة للفلسفة الحديثة. في الدعوة إلى استخدام العقل في رفض خرافات الفلسفة الماورائية والدين، ساعد هذا النص في تقديم الأساس الفلسفي للمنهج العلمي الذي برز بعد ذلك في عصر التنوير الأوروبي.
سجلت بعض الأفكار أثناء القراءة لأكتبها قريباً في مراجعة أطول، فالكتاب يستحق ذلك. هو أول عمل أقرأه لهيوم وقد أعجبني كثيراً

يُتبع... ( )
  TonyDib | Jan 28, 2022 |
I am uncertain about the implications of these ideas, but Hume is convincing, presents them well. ( )
  100sheets | Jun 7, 2021 |
After his three-volume Treatise of Human Nature dropped like a rock to the bottom of the pool of British philosophic writing, Hume set out to write a briefer, more accessible version -- the Enquiry concerning Human Understanding. One of the early points it makes is that most endeavors to write about the nature of thought are hopeless and nearly impossible to understand. With that disclaimer, Hume sets out to contradict himself by writing lucidly about, while candidly acknowledging the severe limits of, this topic. He uses logic to show that most human understanding falls into two categories: a very small group of innate truths deducible by logic, like every triangle has three sides, and a much larger group -- nearly everything we "know" -- which is based on reality-based observation. This latter group always has, at a fundamental level, an element of probabilistic assumption: Things customarily happened this way before, so they probably will again. Thus almost everything we (think we) know about the world is based on empirical experience, not pure logic. So . . .how did he figure this all out? ( )
  oatleyr | Aug 22, 2020 |
Worth re-reading every so often. ( )
  MccMichaelR | Jul 25, 2020 |
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Nom de l'autorCàrrecTipus d'autorObra?Estat
Hume, Davidautor primaritotes les edicionsconfirmat
Camps, VictòriaEditorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Flew, AnthonyEditorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Gaja, VojtěchTraductorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Hendel, Charles WilliamEditorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Ikere, ZaigaTraductorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Millican, Peter J. R.Editorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Moural, JosefTraductorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Sala-Valldaura, Josep MariaTraductorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Selby-Bigge, Lewis AmherstEditorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Smith, AdamCol·laboradorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
Steinberg, EricEditorautor secundarialgunes edicionsconfirmat
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Moral philosophy, or the science of human nature, may be treated after two different manners; each of which has its peculiar merit, and may contribute to the entertainment, instruction, and reformation of mankind. The one considers man chiefly as born for action; and as influenced in his measures by taste and sentiment; pursuing one object, and avoiding another, according to the value which these objects seem to possess, and according to the light in which they present themselves. As virtue, of all objects, is allowed to be the most valuable, this species of philosophers paint her in the most amiable colours; borrowing all helps from poetry and eloquence, and treating their subject in an easy and obvious manner, and such as is best fitted to please the imagination, and engage the affections. They select the most striking observations and instances from common life; place opposite characters in a proper contrast; and alluring us into the paths of virtue by the views of glory and happiness, direct our steps in these paths by the soundest precepts and most illustrious examples. They make us feel the difference between vice and virtue; they excite and regulate our sentiments; and so they can but bend our hearts to the love of probity and true honour, they think, that they have fully attained the end of all their labours.
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If we take in our hand any volume of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance, let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames, for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion.
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The work generally known as An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding was first published as Philosophical Essays Concerning Human Understanding (editorial notes at davidhume.org).
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Published in 1748, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is Scottish empiricist philosopher David Hume's distillation of his mature philosophy. Addressing themes including the limits of human understanding, the compatibility of free will with determinism, weaknesses in the foundations of religion, and the appeal of skepticism, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is Hume's attempt to revise and clarify the ideas of his earlier A Treatise of Human Nature. A major work in the empiricist school of thought that included John Locke and George Berkeley, Hume's work influenced such later authors as Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, and Jeremy Bentham. Controversial and widely debated since its publication, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding is a classic of empiricist philosophy whose questions remain as relevant today as ever.

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