TendènciesRecomanacions

Recomanacions recents

RossHartyGothi recomana The Long-Lost Friend: A 19th Century American Grimoire de John George Hohman per a Trolldom: Spells and Methods of the Norse Folk Magic Tradition de (Oct 17, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Trolldom: Spells and Methods of the Norse Folk Magic Tradition de per a The Long-Lost Friend: A 19th Century American Grimoire de John George Hohman (Oct 17, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Trollrun de Nicholaj de Mattos Frisvold per a Trolldom: Spells and Methods of the Norse Folk Magic Tradition de (Oct 17, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Trolldom: Spells and Methods of the Norse Folk Magic Tradition de per a Trollrun de Nicholaj de Mattos Frisvold (Oct 17, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Legenden Om Den Øde Skov: Sandemoserien (25) de Margit Sandemo per a Trolldom: Spells and Methods of the Norse Folk Magic Tradition de (Oct 17, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Trolldom: Spells and Methods of the Norse Folk Magic Tradition de per a Legenden Om Den Øde Skov: Sandemoserien (25) de Margit Sandemo (Oct 17, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld per a The Snow Child de Eowyn Ivey (Oct 17, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana The Snow Child de Eowyn Ivey per a The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld (Oct 17, 2021)

Muyeba recomana Missionary adventures in Africa de William H. Branson per a Missionary adventures in Africa de William H. Branson, "I am working on research of Missionaries to Chimpempe in Northern Rhodesia and would like to have access to this book. Kindly assist" (Oct 17, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld per a Look Again de Lisa Scottoline (Oct 16, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana L'Habitació de Emma Donoghue per a The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld (Oct 16, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld per a L'Habitació de Emma Donoghue (Oct 16, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana My Abandonment de Peter Rock per a The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld (Oct 16, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana The Child Finder de Rene Denfeld per a My Abandonment de Peter Rock (Oct 16, 2021)

aprille recomana An Illuminated Life: Belle da Costa Greene's Journey from Prejudice to Privilege de Heidi Ardizzone per a The Personal Librarian de Marie Benedict (Oct 16, 2021)

AKBouterse recomana Dopesick: Dealers, Doctors, and the Drug Company that Addicted America de Beth Macy per a Pain Killer: A "Wonder" Drug's Trail of Addiction and Death de Barry Meier (Oct 16, 2021)

AKBouterse recomana Pain Killer: A "Wonder" Drug's Trail of Addiction and Death de Barry Meier per a Dopesick: Dealers, Doctors, and the Drug Company that Addicted America de Beth Macy (Oct 16, 2021)

AKBouterse recomana Empire of Pain: The Secret History of the Sackler Dynasty de Patrick Radden Keefe per a Pain Killer: A "Wonder" Drug's Trail of Addiction and Death de Barry Meier (Oct 16, 2021)

Petroglyph recomana The Image of a Drawn Sword de Jocelyn Brooke per a Ice de Anna Kavan, "If you appreciate the blend of unpleasant dreamscapes and Kafkaesque totalitarianism in either of these novellas, check out the other." (Oct 16, 2021)

Petroglyph recomana Ice de Anna Kavan per a The Image of a Drawn Sword de Jocelyn Brooke, "If you appreciate the blend of unpleasant dreamscapes and Kafkaesque totalitarianism in either of these novellas, check out the other." (Oct 16, 2021)

tibusheikh recomana Heer Ranjha de Harmesh Malhotra per a Two Lovers de Tayyab Mahmood Sheikh, "Best h" (Oct 16, 2021)

bluepiano recomana The Evolution of Inanimate Objects de Harry Karlinsky per a Confessing a Murder de Nicholas Drayson, "Both protagonists are close connections of Darwin who discuss the evolution of unlikely subjects. Both are presented through found documents footnoted (mostra'n més) by a knowledgeable editor. Karlinksy's is good & Drayson's markedly intelligent one, rewarding." (Oct 16, 2021)

bluepiano recomana Confessing a Murder de Nicholas Drayson per a The Evolution of Inanimate Objects de Harry Karlinsky, "Both protagonists are close connections of Darwin who discuss the evolution of unlikely subjects. Both are presented through found documents footnoted (mostra'n més) by a knowledgeable editor. Karlinksy's is good & Drayson's markedly intelligent one, rewarding." (Oct 16, 2021)

bluepiano recomana Confessing a Murder de Nicholas Drayson per a The Book of Imaginary Beings de Jorge Luis Borges, "A novel containing a naturalist's observations of fantastical plants and animals: plants with tendrils that penetrate nesting chicks, swallows who hibernate (mostra'n més) in mud, and the like. A very good book." (Oct 16, 2021)

sparemethecensor recomana The Queue de Vladimir Sorokin per a Your Fathers, Where Are They? And the Prophets, Do They Live Forever? de Dave Eggers (Oct 15, 2021)

sparemethecensor recomana Your Fathers, Where Are They? And the Prophets, Do They Live Forever? de Dave Eggers per a The Queue de Vladimir Sorokin (Oct 15, 2021)

sparemethecensor recomana Transcendent Kingdom de Yaa Gyasi per a Homegoing de Yaa Gyasi (Oct 15, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Monster de Walter Dean Myers per a Something Like Hope de Shawn Goodman (Oct 15, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Something Like Hope de Shawn Goodman per a Monster de Walter Dean Myers (Oct 15, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Monster de Walter Dean Myers per a Something Like Hope de Shawn Goodman (Oct 15, 2021)

sturlington recomana Motherless Brooklyn de Jonathan Lethem per a The Little Sleep de Paul Tremblay (Oct 15, 2021)

sturlington recomana The Little Sleep de Paul Tremblay per a Motherless Brooklyn de Jonathan Lethem (Oct 15, 2021)

pammab recomana The Wake Up: Closing the Gap Between Good Intentions and Real Change de Michelle MiJung Kim per a How to Be an Antiracist de Ibram X. Kendi, "If you left Kendi wanting more about "what can/should I actually do", Kim addresses exactly that urge in her book, which is essentially a corporate DEI (mostra'n més) training on steroids." (Oct 14, 2021)

susanbooks recomana "With His Pistol In His Hand": A Border Ballad and Its Hero de Américo Paredes per a Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World de Eduardo Galeano (Oct 13, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World de Eduardo Galeano per a "With His Pistol In His Hand": A Border Ballad and Its Hero de Américo Paredes (Oct 13, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Drug War Capitalism de Dawn Paley per a Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World de Eduardo Galeano (Oct 13, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Upside Down: A Primer for the Looking-Glass World de Eduardo Galeano per a Drug War Capitalism de Dawn Paley (Oct 13, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Wild Things: The Joy of Reading Children’s Literature as an Adult de Bruce Handy per a My Life with Bob: Flawed Heroine Keeps Book of Books, Plot Ensues de Pamela Paul (Oct 13, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana My Life with Bob: Flawed Heroine Keeps Book of Books, Plot Ensues de Pamela Paul per a Wild Things: The Joy of Reading Children’s Literature as an Adult de Bruce Handy (Oct 13, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Ex-libris : confessions d'una lectora de Anne Fadiman per a My Life with Bob: Flawed Heroine Keeps Book of Books, Plot Ensues de Pamela Paul (Oct 13, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana My Life with Bob: Flawed Heroine Keeps Book of Books, Plot Ensues de Pamela Paul per a Ex-libris : confessions d'una lectora de Anne Fadiman (Oct 13, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Sam Steele: A Biography de Rod MacLeod per a The Wild Frontier de Pierre Berton, "2019 biography, using personal letters Pierre Berton didn't have access to." (Oct 13, 2021)

lavaturtle recomana Docile de K. M. Szpara per a Autonomous de Annalee Newitz, "Human servitude as the logical conclusion of extreme capitalism" (Oct 12, 2021)

lavaturtle recomana Autonomous de Annalee Newitz per a Docile de K. M. Szpara, "Human servitude as the logical conclusion of extreme capitalism" (Oct 12, 2021)

lavaturtle recomana Nexus de Ramez Naam per a Autonomous de Annalee Newitz, "Counterculture science people making drugs!" (Oct 12, 2021)

lavaturtle recomana Autonomous de Annalee Newitz per a Nexus de Ramez Naam (Oct 12, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana Save It for Later: Promises, Parenthood, and the Urgency of Protest de Nate Powell per a Off Season de James Sturm, "Despair over the election of Donald Trump" (Oct 12, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana Off Season de James Sturm per a Save It for Later: Promises, Parenthood, and the Urgency of Protest de Nate Powell, "Despair over the election of Donald Trump" (Oct 12, 2021)

lewbs recomana Cassandra de Christa Wolf per a Ilíada de Homer (Oct 12, 2021)

meggyweg recomana Under the Yellow & Red Stars de Alex Levin per a Hostages : the personal testimony of a Soviet Jew de Grigory Svirsky (Oct 12, 2021)

meggyweg recomana Hostages : the personal testimony of a Soviet Jew de Grigory Svirsky per a Under the Yellow & Red Stars de Alex Levin (Oct 12, 2021)

KayCliff recomana Dolly de Susan Hill per a The Woman in Black de Susan Hill, "The endings of the two stories are so similar." (Oct 11, 2021)

KayCliff recomana The Woman in Black de Susan Hill per a Dolly de Susan Hill, "The endings of the two stories are so similar." (Oct 11, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Rose of No Man's Land de Michelle Tea per a Like a Woman de Debra Busman (Oct 11, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Like a Woman de Debra Busman per a Rose of No Man's Land de Michelle Tea (Oct 11, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Mermaid in Chelsea Creek de Michelle Tea per a Like a Woman de Debra Busman (Oct 11, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Like a Woman de Debra Busman per a Mermaid in Chelsea Creek de Michelle Tea (Oct 11, 2021)

AngelaJMaher recomana The Furos Stories de Everil Worrell per a Monster, She Wrote: The Women Who Pioneered Horror and Speculative Fiction de Lisa Kröger (Oct 11, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana Trish Trash: Rollergirl of Mars, Vol. 1 de Jessica Abel per a SLAM! Vol. 1 de Pamela Ribon (Oct 9, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana SLAM! Vol. 1 de Pamela Ribon per a Trish Trash: Rollergirl of Mars, Vol. 1 de Jessica Abel (Oct 9, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana Roller Girl de Victoria Jamieson per a SLAM! Vol. 1 de Pamela Ribon (Oct 9, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana SLAM! Vol. 1 de Pamela Ribon per a Roller Girl de Victoria Jamieson (Oct 9, 2021)

JenMDB recomana The Push de Ashley Audrain per a The Almost Wife: A Novel de Gail Anderson-Dargatz, "Ex-wives. Who do you believe?" (Oct 8, 2021)

Carol-Mitchell recomana Ruthless Pamela Jean de Carol Denise Mitchell per a Book Lover's Reading Log & Review Notebook: There's a Million Books I Haven't Read But Just You Wait: 6x9 inches, 152 pages, Literary Gift for Book Nerds de Bookery Bookworm Press, "I would love for you to review Ruthless Pamela Jean, an Urban Thriller!" (Oct 8, 2021)

Carol-Mitchell recomana Book Lover's Reading Log & Review Notebook: There's a Million Books I Haven't Read But Just You Wait: 6x9 inches, 152 pages, Literary Gift for Book Nerds de Bookery Bookworm Press per a Ruthless Pamela Jean de Carol Denise Mitchell, "I would love for you to review Ruthless Pamela Jean, an Urban Thriller!" (Oct 8, 2021)

sacredheart25 recomana Nature and Creature: Thomas Aquinas's Way of Thought (Studien Und Texte Zur Geistesgeschichte Des Mittelalters Bd 21) de Johannes Adrianus Aertsen per a Aquinas' Five Arguments in the Summa Theologiae 1a 2,3 de Lubor Velecky (Oct 8, 2021)

sacredheart25 recomana On a Complex Theory of a Simple God: An Investigation in Aquinas' Philosophical Theology de Christopher Hughes per a Aquinas' Five Arguments in the Summa Theologiae 1a 2,3 de Lubor Velecky (Oct 8, 2021)

sacredheart25 recomana God in Himself: Aquinas' Doctrine of God as Expounded in the Summa Theologiae de W. J. Hankey per a Aquinas' Five Arguments in the Summa Theologiae 1a 2,3 de Lubor Velecky (Oct 8, 2021)

sacredheart25 recomana God in Himself: Aquinas' Doctrine of God as Expounded in the Summa Theologiae de W. J. Hankey per a God in Himself: Aquinas' Doctrine of God as Expounded in the Summa Theologiae de W. J. Hankey (Oct 8, 2021)

usuallee recomana The Gap Into Conflict: The Real Story de Stephen R. Donaldson per a Leviathan Wakes de James S. A. Corey, "Book 1 of another excellent gritty, grimy space opera series." (Oct 8, 2021)

usuallee recomana Leviathan Wakes de James S. A. Corey per a The Gap Into Conflict: The Real Story de Stephen R. Donaldson, "Book 1 of another excellent gritty, grimy space opera series." (Oct 8, 2021)

Laura400 recomana Started Early, Took My Dog de Kate Atkinson per a The Man Who Died Twice de Richard Osman (Oct 8, 2021)

jeroenvandorp recomana Het meisje met de eierstokjes de Herman Finkers per a De cursus 'omgaan met teleurstellingen' gaat wederom niet door verzamelde vertelsels de Herman Finkers (Oct 8, 2021)

dawnlovesbooks recomana Normal People de Sally Rooney per a Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine de Gail Honeyman, "both have witty and eccentric characters" (Oct 7, 2021)

aspirit recomana Black Cats and Bad Luck: Gay Romance Novel (Ward Magic Series Book 1) de F. N. Manning per a Eight Lives de Autumn Breeze (Oct 7, 2021)

aspirit recomana Eight Lives de Autumn Breeze per a Black Cats and Bad Luck: Gay Romance Novel (Ward Magic Series Book 1) de F. N. Manning (Oct 7, 2021)

Cecrow recomana The Wild Frontier de Pierre Berton per a Wilfred Grenfell: Fisher of Men de Janet Benge, "Wilfred Grenfell is one of seven people featured in Berton's vignettes." (Oct 6, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Alícia al país de les meravelles de Lewis Carroll per a The Roundhill de Dick King-Smith (Oct 6, 2021)

Cecrow recomana The Roundhill de Dick King-Smith per a Alícia al país de les meravelles de Lewis Carroll (Oct 6, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana A Stranger in Olondria de Sofia Samatar per a Strandia de Susan Lynn Reynolds, "Fantasies with detailed worldbuilding, focusing on an islander protagonist and the mysterious continent that lies far beyond." (Oct 6, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Strandia de Susan Lynn Reynolds per a A Stranger in Olondria de Sofia Samatar, "Fantasies with detailed worldbuilding, focusing on an islander protagonist and the mysterious continent that lies far beyond." (Oct 6, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Spinning Silver de Naomi Novik per a Strandia de Susan Lynn Reynolds (Oct 6, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Strandia de Susan Lynn Reynolds per a Spinning Silver de Naomi Novik (Oct 6, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Spinning Silver de Naomi Novik per a Strandia de Susan Lynn Reynolds (Oct 6, 2021)

Marcos_Augusto recomana The Royal Touch: Monarchy and Miracles in France and England de Marc Bloch per a Feudal Society de Marc Bloch (Oct 5, 2021)

Marcos_Augusto recomana Intellectuals in the Middle Ages de Jacques Le Goff per a The Medieval Imagination de Jacques Le Goff (Oct 5, 2021)

RobSamborn recomana Outlander de Diana Gabaldon per a The Prisoner of Paradise de (Oct 5, 2021)

RobSamborn recomana The Prisoner of Paradise de per a Outlander de Diana Gabaldon (Oct 5, 2021)

RobSamborn recomana El codi Da Vinci de Dan Brown per a The Prisoner of Paradise de (Oct 5, 2021)

RobSamborn recomana The Prisoner of Paradise de per a El codi Da Vinci de Dan Brown (Oct 5, 2021)

KayCliff recomana El nebot del mag de C. S. Lewis per a Piranesi de Susanna Clarke (Oct 5, 2021)

KayCliff recomana Piranesi de Susanna Clarke per a El nebot del mag de C. S. Lewis (Oct 5, 2021)

PoppyM recomana The Boss Who Stole Christmas de Jana Aston per a Holiday Hotel de Poppy Minnix, "Style, zaniness, festive Christmas theme, first-person female POV" (Oct 5, 2021)

AndreasJ recomana Rome and the Enemy: Imperial Strategy in the Principate de Susan P. Mattern per a The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third de Edward N. Luttwak, "Mattern offers a quite different take on Roman imperial strategy." (Oct 5, 2021)

M.haris recomana How to Read People Like a Book: 50 Uncommon Tips You Need to Know (Succesful Living) de Murray Oxman per a Read People Like a Book: How to Analyze, Understand, and Predict People's Emotions, Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors de Patrick King (Oct 5, 2021)

M.haris recomana Psychology de Robert A. Baron per a Read People Like a Book: How to Analyze, Understand, and Predict People's Emotions, Thoughts, Intentions, and Behaviors de Patrick King (Oct 5, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Kristin Lavransdatter de Sigrid Undset per a Angel of Oblivion de Maja Haderlap, "They take place centuries apart, but both are about a young woman's intense relationship with her father and take place in similar, rural communities" (Oct 4, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Angel of Oblivion de Maja Haderlap per a Kristin Lavransdatter de Sigrid Undset, "They take place centuries apart, but both are about young women's intense relationships with their fathers' and take place in similar, rural communities" (Oct 4, 2021)

susanbooks recomana The Hired Man de Aminatta Forna per a Angel of Oblivion de Maja Haderlap (Oct 4, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Angel of Oblivion de Maja Haderlap per a The Hired Man de Aminatta Forna (Oct 4, 2021)

Derek_Robertson recomana Tales from the Loop de Simon Stålenhag per a Tales from the Loop: Our Friends the Machines & Other Mysteries de Rickard Antroia (Oct 4, 2021)

Derek_Robertson recomana Tales from the Loop: Our Friends the Machines & Other Mysteries de Rickard Antroia per a Tales from the Loop: Our Friends the Machines & Other Mysteries de Rickard Antroia (Oct 4, 2021)

bookboy804 recomana The Postmortal de Drew Magary per a Point B (a teleportation love story) de Drew Magary (Oct 3, 2021)

AlbertHolmes recomana Collected Poems 1947-1997 de Allen Ginsberg per a Collected Poems 1947-1997 de Allen Ginsberg (Oct 3, 2021)

AlbertHolmes recomana Collected Poems 1947-1997 de Allen Ginsberg per a nostalgia & other forms of boredom: collected poems (2005-2020) de J. Andrew Schrecker (Oct 3, 2021)

viking2917 recomana Hrolf Kraki's Saga de Poul Anderson per a The Saga of Grettir the Strong de Anonymous (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana No-No Boy de John Okada per a They Called Us Enemy de George Takei (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana They Called Us Enemy de George Takei per a No-No Boy de John Okada (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana Displacement de Kiku Hughes per a We Hereby Refuse: Japanese American Acts of Resistance During World War II de Frank Abe (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana We Hereby Refuse: Japanese American Acts of Resistance During World War II de Frank Abe per a Displacement de Kiku Hughes (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana They Called Us Enemy de George Takei per a We Hereby Refuse: Japanese American Acts of Resistance During World War II de Frank Abe (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana We Hereby Refuse: Japanese American Acts of Resistance During World War II de Frank Abe per a They Called Us Enemy de George Takei (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana No-No Boy de John Okada per a We Hereby Refuse: Japanese American Acts of Resistance During World War II de Frank Abe (Oct 2, 2021)

villemezbrown recomana We Hereby Refuse: Japanese American Acts of Resistance During World War II de Frank Abe per a No-No Boy de John Okada (Oct 2, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Watch Me Disappear de Janelle Brown per a Look Again de Lisa Scottoline (Oct 2, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Look Again de Lisa Scottoline per a Watch Me Disappear de Janelle Brown (Oct 2, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Jo, Claudi de Robert Graves per a Augustus de John Buchan (Oct 2, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Aztec de Gary Jennings per a Servant of the Underworld de Aliette de Bodard, "Historical fiction leading up to the Spanish invasion." (Oct 2, 2021)

TillyWiz recomana Dark Rise de C. S. Pacat per a The Dark Is Rising de Susan Cooper, "A 21st century reimagining - Cooper's moral absolutism and obeisance to traditional authority figures is out; subversion of traditional fantasy tropes, (mostra'n més) shades-of-grey, and diverse representation are in." (Oct 1, 2021)

TillyWiz recomana Dark Rise de C. S. Pacat per a Shadow and Bone de Leigh Bardugo, "Darklina, but make it gay. And good." (Oct 1, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Waverley de Sir Walter Scott per a Outlander de Diana Gabaldon, "Classic novel set at the same time and place." (Oct 1, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Outlander de Diana Gabaldon per a Waverley de Sir Walter Scott, "By contrast, a modern romance set at the same time and place." (Oct 1, 2021)

zakaryae recomana Perill a End House de Agatha Christie per a Peril de Bob Woodward, "check this book : https://www.greywish.com/3MBnB6x0dXDuINx9AyQ8dtFjXN_DXU4k1XhOKd_NInZmWBMyN4yfY7hJUdZthRBM_lILcwjMat6tvKSe4xf4qA~~" (Oct 1, 2021)

zakaryae recomana Peril de Bob Woodward per a Perill a End House de Agatha Christie, "check this book : https://www.greywish.com/3MBnB6x0dXDuINx9AyQ8dtFjXN_DXU4k1XhOKd_NInZmWBMyN4yfY7hJUdZthRBM_lILcwjMat6tvKSe4xf4qA~~" (Oct 1, 2021)

Sandwich76 recomana Underland: A Deep Time Journey de Robert Macfarlane per a Solitude: In Pursuit of a Singular Life in a Crowded World de Michael Harris (Oct 1, 2021)

writard recomana The Lord of Stariel de AJ Lancaster per a Tsumiko and the Enslaved Fox de Forthright, "Similar fantasy anime vibes." (Oct 1, 2021)

Stbalbach recomana Born Free de Joy Adamson per a Ring of Bright Water de Gavin Maxwell, "Both pub. in 1960 concerning raising wild animals as pets; they were influential classics that made many readers environmentally aware for first time; (mostra'n més) the authors had notable character flaws in real life (abusive, mean); the beloved animals die raising criticisms about wild animals as pets; the books are extremely well written and remain popular." (Sep 30, 2021)

Stbalbach recomana Ring of Bright Water de Gavin Maxwell per a Born Free de Joy Adamson, "Both pub. in 1960 concerning raising wild animals as pets; they were influential classics that made many readers environmentally aware for first time; (mostra'n més) the authors had notable character flaws in real life (abusive, mean); the beloved animals die raising criticisms about wild animals as pets; the books are extremely well written and remain popular." (Sep 30, 2021)

Cecrow recomana The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks de Joseph Banks per a Captain Cook's Voyages de James Cook (Sep 29, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Captain Cook's Voyages de James Cook per a The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks de Joseph Banks (Sep 29, 2021)

Cecrow recomana The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks de Joseph Banks per a The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific de James Cook (Sep 29, 2021)

Cecrow recomana The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks de Joseph Banks per a The Voyages of Captain Cook de Rex Rienits (Sep 29, 2021)

klarsenmd recomana The Scorpio Races de Maggie Stiefvater per a A Simple Tale of Water and Weeping de (Sep 29, 2021)

klarsenmd recomana A Simple Tale of Water and Weeping de per a The Scorpio Races de Maggie Stiefvater (Sep 29, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Captain Cook's Voyages de James Cook per a The Signature of All Things de Elizabeth Gilbert, "Major source of inspiration for Elizabeth Gilbert." (Sep 29, 2021)

Michael.Rimmer recomana The Book of Pebbles de Christopher Stocks per a Beach Rambles in Search of Seaside Pebbles and Crystals de John George Francis (Sep 29, 2021)

Michael.Rimmer recomana Beach Rambles in Search of Seaside Pebbles and Crystals de John George Francis per a The Book of Pebbles de Christopher Stocks (Sep 29, 2021)

Lee_Bloomquist recomana Hear Yourself: How to Find Peace in a Noisy World de Prem Rawat per a Hear Yourself: How to Find Peace in a Noisy World de Prem Rawat (Sep 29, 2021)

vegetarian recomana HR Analytics Essentials You Always Wanted To Know (Self-Learning Management Series) de Vibrant Publishers per a HR Analytics Essentials You Always Wanted to Know de Michael J. Walsh, "Thoughtfully written..." (Sep 29, 2021)

vegetarian recomana HR Analytics Essentials You Always Wanted to Know de Michael J. Walsh per a HR Analytics Essentials You Always Wanted To Know (Self-Learning Management Series) de Vibrant Publishers, "Thoughtfully written..." (Sep 29, 2021)

szarka recomana Static Demand Theory de Donald W. Katzner per a Consumer theory de H. A. John Green (Sep 28, 2021)

szarka recomana Consumer theory de H. A. John Green per a Static Demand Theory de Donald W. Katzner (Sep 28, 2021)

dara85 recomana The Life and Times of the Thunderbolt Kid: A Memoir de Bill Bryson per a An Ocean in Iowa de Peter Hedges, "Both have some humor and both take place in Iowa." (Sep 28, 2021)

dara85 recomana An Ocean in Iowa de Peter Hedges per a The Life and Times of the Thunderbolt Kid: A Memoir de Bill Bryson, "Both have some humor and both take place in Iowa." (Sep 28, 2021)

bluepiano recomana Watching Hannah: Sex, Horror and Bodily De-Formation in Victorian England (Picturing History) de Barry Reay per a Munby, man of two worlds : the life and diaries of Arthur J. Munby, 1828-1910 de Derek Hudson, "Despite the subtitle direct from academe it's an interesting book about Munby & Cullwick." (Sep 28, 2021)

Headcleaner recomana Ministry of Illusion: Nazi Cinema and Its Afterlife de Eric Rentschler per a Entertaining the Third Reich: Illusions of Wholeness in Nazi Cinema (Post-Contemporary Interventions) de Linda Schulte-Sasse (Sep 28, 2021)

Headcleaner recomana Nazi Cinema as Enchantment: The Politics of Entertainment in the Third Reich (Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture) de Mary Elizabeth O'Brien per a Entertaining the Third Reich: Illusions of Wholeness in Nazi Cinema (Post-Contemporary Interventions) de Linda Schulte-Sasse (Sep 28, 2021)

Headcleaner recomana Film in the Third Reich de David Stewart Hull per a Entertaining the Third Reich: Illusions of Wholeness in Nazi Cinema (Post-Contemporary Interventions) de Linda Schulte-Sasse (Sep 28, 2021)

Lucky-Loki recomana From Hell de Alan Moore per a Torso de Brian Michael Bendis, "While nowhere near as complex or ambitious as "From Hell", the similarities are obvious -- both are black and white true crime graphic novels based on (mostra'n més) the investigations of one of the first prolific media-covered real life serial killers. Both are for mature readers only, with horrific displays of the violence involved. And both are quite good. The art style is much superior in "From Hell" (though of course that's somewhat a matter of taste), and being many times as long the story is accordingly deeper and more satisfying, but keeping that in mind, I see no reason the reader of one shouldn't enjoy the other." (Sep 28, 2021)

Lucky-Loki recomana Torso de Brian Michael Bendis per a From Hell de Alan Moore, "While nowhere near as complex or ambitious as "From Hell", the similarities are obvious -- both are black and white true crime graphic novels based on (mostra'n més) the investigations of one of the first prolific media-covered real life serial killers. Both are for mature readers only, with horrific displays of the violence involved. And both are quite good. The art style is much superior in "From Hell" (though of course that's somewhat a matter of taste), and being many times as long the story is accordingly deeper and more satisfying, but keeping that in mind, I see no reason the reader of one shouldn't enjoy the other." (Sep 28, 2021)

supersidvicious recomana Romanzo criminale de Giancarlo De Cataldo per a Suburra de Carlo Bonini (Sep 27, 2021)

supersidvicious recomana Io sono il Libanese de Giancarlo De Cataldo per a Romanzo criminale de Giancarlo De Cataldo (Sep 27, 2021)

supersidvicious recomana Nelle mani giuste de Giancarlo De Cataldo per a Romanzo criminale de Giancarlo De Cataldo (Sep 27, 2021)

MaidMeri recomana Prep de Curtis Sittenfeld per a Jag måste sluta tänka på Patrik Lundgren de Josefin Sonck, "Similarly neurotic and self-obsessed main character." (Sep 27, 2021)

sparemethecensor recomana When No One Is Watching de Alyssa Cole per a The Other Black Girl de Zakiya Dalila Harris (Sep 26, 2021)

sparemethecensor recomana The Other Black Girl de Zakiya Dalila Harris per a When No One Is Watching de Alyssa Cole (Sep 26, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Tamara Drewe de Posy Simmonds per a Real People de Alison Lurie, "Life at a rural artists' retreat is disrupted when a young woman related to the manager shows up, the guests becomes preoccupied with her, and the consequences (mostra'n més) destabilize the social environment in some pivotal ways." (Sep 26, 2021)

beyondthefourthwall recomana Real People de Alison Lurie per a Tamara Drewe de Posy Simmonds, "Life at a rural artists' retreat is disrupted when a young woman related to the manager shows up, the guests becomes preoccupied with her, and the consequences (mostra'n més) destabilize the social environment in some pivotal ways." (Sep 26, 2021)

wester recomana L'home que va confondre la seva dona amb un barret de Oliver Sacks per a The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World de Iain McGilchrist, "I don't know why Sacks' book is not mentioned in the bibliography of McGilchrists book, as it contains many excellent illustrations of its important points. (mostra'n més) The style is also similar: medical, but also personal, poetic and accessible." (Sep 26, 2021)

wester recomana The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World de Iain McGilchrist per a L'home que va confondre la seva dona amb un barret de Oliver Sacks, "I don't know why Sacks' book is not mentioned in the bibliography of McGilchrists book, as it contains many excellent illustrations of its important points. (mostra'n més) The style is also similar: medical, but personal, poetic and accessible." (Sep 26, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Buckland's Book of Saxon Witchcraft de Raymond Buckland per a Heathen a Viking Grimoire of Norse Sorcery de Asbjörn Torvol, "Fantastic fantasy authors." (Sep 26, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Heathen a Viking Grimoire of Norse Sorcery de Asbjörn Torvol per a Buckland's Book of Saxon Witchcraft de Raymond Buckland, "Fantastic fantasy authors." (Sep 26, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana The Healing Runes de Ralph H. Blum per a Heathen a Viking Grimoire of Norse Sorcery de Asbjörn Torvol, "Both books are magnificent fantasy" (Sep 26, 2021)

RossHartyGothi recomana Heathen a Viking Grimoire of Norse Sorcery de Asbjörn Torvol per a The Healing Runes de Ralph H. Blum (Sep 26, 2021)

JacoboBaggins recomana Economics in One Lesson de Henry Hazlitt per a Basic Economics: A Common Sense Guide to the Economy de Thomas Sowell, "Compact but deeply insightful. Somewhat abstract and almost axiomatic but in a good way." (Sep 26, 2021)

juanpi22 recomana Violetta. Mi diario un año después: Todos mis secretos y mis sueños de Disney per a Violetta. Mi diario un año después: Todos mis secretos y mis sueños de Disney (Sep 25, 2021)

CaseyAdamsStark recomana The Only Good Indians de Stephen Graham Jones per a The Schoharie de Diane M. Johnson (Sep 25, 2021)

CaseyAdamsStark recomana We Sold Our Souls de Grady Hendrix per a Perfect Prophet de Diane M. Johnson (Sep 25, 2021)

CaseyAdamsStark recomana Rosemary's Baby de Ira Levin per a Perfect Prophet de Diane M. Johnson (Sep 25, 2021)

JenMDB recomana The High Road de Terry Fallis per a Operation Angus de (Sep 25, 2021)

JenMDB recomana The Best Laid Plans de Terry Fallis per a Operation Angus de , "First in the series" (Sep 25, 2021)

CaseyAdamsStark recomana Let The Right One In de John Ajvide Lindqvist per a My Heart Is a Chainsaw de Stephen Graham Jones (Sep 25, 2021)

susanbooks recomana Life-Size de Jenefer Shute per a Binary Star de Sarah Gerard (Sep 25, 2021)

Becchanalia recomana La campana de vidre de Sylvia Plath per a The Dud Avocado de Elaine Dundy (Sep 25, 2021)

reading_fox recomana Furies of Calderon de Jim Butcher per a Spellslinger de Sebastien De Castell, "Both feature young boys without magic in an inherently magic using society and a more complex landscape than they'd expected growing up." (Sep 24, 2021)

reading_fox recomana Spellslinger de Sebastien De Castell per a Furies of Calderon de Jim Butcher, "Both feature young boys without magic in an inherently magic using society and a more complex landscape than they'd expected growing up." (Sep 24, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a The Holy Bible: King James Version (KJV) de Anonymous, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, and only to be fair, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, (mostra'n més) Spider Grandmother and the Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


The longest-standing right-wing opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.
" (Sep 23, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana Why I Am Not a Christian and Other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects de Bertrand Russell per a The Holy Bible: King James Version (KJV) de Anonymous, "You have to respect him for admitting that he was unsure of whether he was an atheist or an agnostic. But you can’t refute the quote from his book:

    A (mostra'n més) good world needs knowledge, kindliness, and courage; it does not need a regretful hankering after the past or a fettering of the free intelligence by the words uttered long ago by ignorant men.
" (Sep 23, 2021)

themulhern recomana Hate Inc.: Why Today’s Media Makes Us Despise One Another de Matt Taibbi per a Politicians, Partisans, and Parasites: My Adventures in Cable News de Tucker Carlson, "Would the two authors get along? They seem awful similar, actually." (Sep 22, 2021)

themulhern recomana Politicians, Partisans, and Parasites: My Adventures in Cable News de Tucker Carlson per a Hate Inc.: Why Today’s Media Makes Us Despise One Another de Matt Taibbi, "Would the two authors get along? They seem awful similar, actually." (Sep 22, 2021)

Cecrow recomana Decameró de Giovanni Boccaccio per a Tales from the Decameron de Giovanni Boccaccio (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Castillo Interior o Las Moradas de St. Teresa of Avila, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, and only to be fair, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, (mostra'n més) Spider Grandmother and the Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


The longest-standing right-wing opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.
" (Sep 22, 2021)

AngelaJMaher recomana Monster, She Wrote: The Women Who Pioneered Horror and Speculative Fiction de Lisa Kröger per a The Frighteners: Why We Love Monsters, Ghosts, Death & Gore de Peter Laws (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Holy Bible de , "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, and only to be fair, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, (mostra'n més) Spider Grandmother and the Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


The longest-standing right-wing opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.
" (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a A Simple Path de Mother Teresa, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, and only to be fair, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, (mostra'n més) Spider Grandmother and the Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


The longest-standing right-wing opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.”
" (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a The Seat of the Soul de Gary Zukav, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Autobiography of a Yogi de Paramahansa Yogananda, "You can’t fault a man who emphasized the unity of the world’s religions. Or can you?


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some (mostra'n més) of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a The Alchemy of Happiness de Al-Ghazzali, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a The Road to Mecca de Muhammad Asad, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Heaven and Its Wonders and Hell: Drawn From Things Heard & Seen de Emanuel Swedenborg, "Swedenborg was once in charge of all the mines in Sweden. But consider Steven Pinker’s take on the Bible:


The longest-standing right-wing (mostra'n més) opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.
" (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a The Way of the Sufi de Idries Shah, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Journey of Souls: Case Studies of Life Between Lives de Michael Newton, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Meetings with Remarkable Men de G. I. Gurdjieff, "Gurdjieff wasn’t money hungry like many similar cult leaders and was very generous with the poor. But consider Steven Pinker’s alternative theory on (mostra'n més) human nature:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Be Here Now de Ram Dass, "Ram Dass said, ‘The spiritual journey is highly personal. It isn’t true that everyone should follow one path. Listen to your own truth.’ So would (mostra'n més) he have agreed or disagreed with Pinker on the blank slate?:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a A Course in Miracles de Foundation for Inner Peace, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a El Camí del guerrer pacífic : un llibre que canvia vides de Dan Millman, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Confesiones de San Agustín de Saint Augustine, "Although he was in favor of abstinence, he admitted how difficult it was for him. As for The Blank Slate:


The longest-standing right-wing (mostra'n més) opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.
" (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a El profeta de Kahlil Gibran, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a The Spiral Dance de Starhawk, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Converses amb Déu : un diàleg poc comú de Neale Donald Walsch, "I’d give Neal a break, a fire burned all of his belongings (early 1990s). A snippet from Pinker’s book:


The longest-standing right-wing (mostra'n més) opposition to the sciences of human nature comes from the religious sectors of the coalition, especially Christian fundamentalism. Anyone who doesn’t believe in evolution is certainly not going to believe in the evolution of the mind, and anyone who believes in an immaterial soul is certainly not going to believe that thought and feeling consist of information processing in the tissues of the brain.

The religious opposition to evolution is fueled by several moral fears. Most obviously, the fact of evolution challenges the literal truth of the creation story in the Bible and thus the authority that religion draws from it. As one creationist minister put it, “If the Bible gets it wrong in biology, then why should I trust the Bible when it talks about morality and salvation?”

But the opposition to evolution goes beyond a desire to defend biblical literalism. Modern religious people may not believe in the literal truth of every miracle narrated in the Bible, but they do believe that humans were designed in God’s image and placed on earth for a larger purpose—namely, to live a moral life by following God’s commandments. If humans are accidental products of the mutation and selection of chemical replicators, they worry, morality would have no foundation and we would be left mindlessly obeying biological urges. One creationist, testifying to this danger in front of the U.S. House Judiciary Committee, cited the lyrics of a rock song: “You and me baby ain’t nothin’ but mammals / So let’s do it like they do it on the Discovery Channel” After the 1999 lethal rampage by two teenagers at Columbine High School in Colorado, Tom Delay, the Republican Majority Whip in the House of Representatives, said that such violence is inevitable as long as “our school systems teach children that they are nothing but glorified apes, evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud.
" (Sep 22, 2021)

PlaidStallion recomana The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature de Steven Pinker per a Black Elk Speaks: Being the Life Story of a Holy Man of the Oglala Sioux de John G. Neihardt, "God, Jesus, Virgin Mary, Yahweh, Allah, Mohammed, Shiva, Buddha, Zeus, Odin, Horus, Emperor of Heaven, Haile Selassie, Great Spirit, Spider Grandmother, (mostra'n més) Flying Spaghetti Monster—take a lesson:


MOST PEOPLE ARE familiar with the idea that some of our ordeals come from a mismatch between the source of our passions in evolutionary history and the goals we set for ourselves today. People gorge themselves in anticipation of a famine that never comes, engage in dangerous liaisons that conceive babies they don’t want, and rev up their bodies in response to stressors from which they cannot run away.

What is true for the emotions may also be true for the intellect. Some of our perplexities may come from a mismatch between the purposes for which our cognitive faculties evolved and the purposes to which we put them today. This is obvious enough when it comes to raw data processing. People do not try to multiply six-digit numbers in their heads or remember the phone number of everyone they meet, because they know their minds were not designed for the job. But it is not as obvious when it comes to the way we conceptualize the world. Our minds keep us in touch with aspects of reality—such as objects, animals, and people—that our ancestors dealt with for millions of years. But as science and technology open up new and hidden worlds, our untutored intuitions may find themselves at sea.

What are these intuitions? Many cognitive scientists believe that human reasoning is not accomplished by a single, general-purpose computer in the head. The world is a heterogeneous place, and we are equipped with different kinds of intuitions and logics, each appropriate to one department of reality. These ways of knowing have been called systems, modules, stances, faculties, mental organs, multiple intelligences, and reasoning engines. They emerge early in life, are present in every normal person, and appear to be computed in partly distinct sets of networks in the brain. They may be installed by different combinations of genes, or they may emerge when brain tissue self-organizes in response to different problems to be solved and different patterns in the sensory input. Most likely they develop by some combination of these forces.

What makes our reasoning faculties different from the departments in a university is that they are not just broad areas of knowledge, analyzed with whatever tools work best. Each faculty is based on a core intuition that was suitable for analyzing the world in which we evolved. Though cognitive scientists have not agreed on a Gray’s Anatomy of the mind, here is a tentative but defensible list of cognitive faculties and the core intuitions on which they are based:

  • An intuitive physics, which we use to keep track of how objects fall, bounce, and bend. Its core intuition is the concept of the object, which occupies one place, exists for a continuous span of time, and follows laws of motion and force. These are not Newton’s laws but something closer to the medieval conception of impetus, an “oomph” that keeps an object in motion and gradually dissipates.
  • An intuitive version of biology or natural history, which we use to understand the living world. Its core intuition is that living things house a hidden essence that gives them their form and powers and drives their growth and bodily functions.
  • An intuitive engineering, which we use to make and understand tools and other artifacts. Its core intuition is that a tool is an object with a purpose—an object designed by a person to achieve a goal.
  • An intuitive psychology, which we use to understand other people. Its core intuition is that other people are not objects or machines but are animated by the invisible entity we call the mind or the soul. Minds contain beliefs and desires and are the immediate cause of behavior.
  • A spatial sense, which we use to navigate the world and keep track of where things are. It is based on a dead reckoner, which updates coordinates of the body's location as it moves and turns, and a network of mental maps. Each map is organized by a different reference frame: the eyes, the head, the body, or salient objects and places in the world.
  • A number sense, which we use to think about quantities and amounts. It is based on an ability to register exact quantities for small numbers of objects (one, two, and three) and to make rough relative estimates for larger numbers.
  • A sense of probability, which we use to reason about the likelihood of uncertain events. It is based on the ability to track the relative frequencies of events, that is, the proportion of events of some kind that turn out one way or the other.
  • An intuitive economics, which we use to exchange goods and favors. It is based on the concept of reciprocal exchange, in which one party confers a benefit on another and is entitled to an equivalent benefit in return.
  • A mental database and logic, which we use to represent ideas and to infer new ideas from old ones. It is based on assertions about what’s what, what’s where, or who did what to whom, when, where, and why. The assertions are linked in a mind-wide web and can be recombined with logical and causal operators such as AND, OR, NOT, ALL, SOME, NECESSARY, POSSIBLE, and CAUSE.
  • Language, which we use to share the ideas from our mental logic. It is based on a mental dictionary of memorized words and a mental grammar of combinatorial rules. The rules organize vowels and consonants into words, words into bigger words and phrases, and phrases into sentences, in such a way that the meaning of the combination can be computed from the meanings of the parts and the way they are arranged.
The mind also has components for which it is hard to tell where cognition leaves off and emotion begins. These include a system for assessing danger, coupled with the emotion called fear, a system for assessing contamination, coupled with the emotion called disgust, and a moral sense, which is complex enough to deserve a chapter of its own.

These ways of knowing and core intuitions are suitable for the lifestyle of small groups of illiterate, stateless people who live off the land, survive by their wits, and depend on what they can carry. Our ancestors left this lifestyle for a settled existence only a few millennia ago, too recently for evolution to have done much, if anything, to our brains. Conspicuous by their absence are faculties suited to the stunning new understanding of the world wrought by science and technology. For many domains of knowledge, the mind could not have evolved dedicated machinery, the brain and genome show no hints of specialization, and people show no spontaneous intuitive understanding either in the crib or afterward. They include modern physics, cosmology, genetics, evolution, neuroscience, embryology, economics, and mathematics.

It’s not just that we have to go to school or read books to learn these subjects. It’s that we have no mental tools to grasp them intuitively. We depend on analogies that press an old mental faculty into service, or on jerry-built mental contraptions that wire together bits and pieces of other faculties. Understanding in these domains is likely to be uneven, shallow, and contaminated by primitive intuitions. And that can shape debates in the border disputes in which science and technology make contact with everyday life. The point … is that together with all the moral, empirical, and political factors that go into these debates, we should add the cognitive factors: the way our minds naturally frame issues. Our own cognitive makeup is a missing piece of many puzzles, including education, bioethics, food safety, economics, and human understanding itself." (Sep 22, 2021)